Thyroglossal Cyst – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Last Updated on February 2, 2023 by Dr. Saqib Mueed

A thyroglossal cyst is a disease that is formed in the neck of children neck. Before the birth of a baby, the thyroid gland is formed on the tongue. After birth, it is collected in the neck region Fluid formed in this region of the neck

Mostly it occurs in the upper region of the tongue. But it can occur at any point of the neck region.  When the thyroid gland forms on the neck the abnormality causes this disease. The tissues divide abnormally. It is located above the thyroid bone. It can take place at any position of the thyroid. Many diagnoses may be used to solve the degree of the cyst.

Fast facts on the thyroglossal duct cyst

  • Commonly a lump, round, soft and painless in the front center in the neck.
  • When the person is feeding and swallowing through their tongue these moves around this.
  • Surgically cysts can be removed and this procedure can prevent infection.
  • During mid-age or during preschool age it can be diagenesis.

The bone of the hyoid has sandwiched the tongue and is located at the base of the tongue. The Thyroglossal duct is packed on the front area of the neck and this packed is filled with a fluid-like composition. The cyst is present when infected children are born.

So, we can say that this disease is produced during the development of a child into the mother. When a child is born it is present in the resting stage. The tissues which are left from the thyroid gland make these cysts later. In the front of the neck, the thyroid gland is present. The thyroid gland is the part of hormones producing glands called endocrine glands.

The formation of congenital mass and development of anomaly thyroid gland. The midline of the neck contains cysts thyroglossal duct dilates. The Thyroglossal duct which is called TGD formed during embryonic stage. During embryonic development, some remnants become cysts in the later stage of life.


  • Thyroglossal duct remnant and thyroglossal tract.
  • Blind tract is called sinus during granulation leading deep into the normal or natural epithelial surface for example cervical or foramen
  • The communication between the two normal epithelial surfaces is a fistula.


The Thyroglossal duct may appear in the age between 2 to 10 years after birth. In the start, your children can not feel the pain but when symptoms start your children feel pain in the neck, neck swallowing and the color of the neck become so red. When food passes from the neck feel pain. It is most often present with symptomatic midline neck mass usually.

Thyroglossal usually present as a midline lump that is usually painless, smooth. Especially if the cyst was large. The common side for cyst is midline off midline between the isthmus and the hyoid bone or above the hind bone. Occasionally a lingual thyroid is seen as a strawberry stake-like bud on the root of the tongue.

Sometimes this mucus leaks out from the lumps and goes to the skin which is present near it. If these stacks become infected it makes the color of the neck red and swallows the neck. Some people face difficulty in swallowing food. Some people face difficulty breathing. Some people experience infection when they are patients of thyroglossal duct pressure symptoms or swelling.

When any symptoms occur, surgery is an option to cure it. Even if it is not infected it cannot be felt that thyroglossal duct is present or not.

Diagnostic tests for thyroglossal duct may be any following

  • Blood checkup
  • Ultrasonography checkup
  • Thyroid MRIs
  • Spike aspiration
  •  X-ray within a different colorant


Thyroglossal duct is a congenital disease that forms in the neck region. It is caused due to the abnormality in the vomb. It may appear in both girls and boys after birth up to the age of 10 years. It infects at the stage of birth. In fact, it appears during the early stage of life and. the thyroid gland is formed during the embryonic development stage.

Start at the root of the tong and moves toward the neck and neck canal. There it is known as a thyroglossal duct cyst. The duct disappears when the thyroid reaches its final position. Leaving small pockets duct portion remains behind. During life, these pockets filled with fluids and increase in size and showing the thyroglossal cyst.

A gland is called thyroid gland formed in the root of the tongue and then it moves down and finally reaches the neck region. In some cases, small parts of this gland remain and later they create duct cysts.


  • By the TGD cyst infant may be died
  • After excision of TGD cyst 4-year girl with hypothyroidism
  • A 55-year-old man died after this fatal disease


  • It is based on the typical clinical features supported by the radiations they are confirmed by the postoperative histopathology
  • Ultrasound is the best method for the investigation of thyroglossal duct.
  • In these methods we identify mainly the location of infection where cysts are presents and what is the relation with the hyoid bone and echotexture of thyroid glands.
  • CT or MRI plays important role in the identification of large cysts

Heterogeneous patterns in internal echoes on the condition of previous and hemorrhage infection.

  • Most paid pediatric thyroglossal contain pseudo solid appearance.
  • True solid components contain the danger of disease.
  • Cartography can detect functional thyroid tissue in the TGD.

Treatment and care of thyroglossal duct

The treatment of this disease required a well-trained surgeon. He operated this part of the neck with medical tools. It is commonly examined by a physical. If we want to identify a thyroglossal duct we must use this method and derive. tissues from this area. The degree of this disease is used to identify the severity of thyroglossal duct cyst. The surgeon communally remove duct cysts for the comfort of the patient. Removal also favors the further division of diagenesis rare cases this can cause cancer.


Surgery is the main option for the treatment of thyroglossal cyst. The Sistrunk is the most common method for the removal of cysts. And they do not reoccur


Antibiotics can be used for the treatment of thyroglossal ducts even if surgery is already planned. Before the surgery, infection may be very difficult and it increases the chances of recurrence.

A surgeon makes an incision during the surgery Sistrunk procedure in the front of the neck. Over the swelling they remove the thyroglossal cuts up to its base including a piece of hyoid bone.

Treatment depends on the child’s age, symptoms, general health. It also depends on the server condition of this disease. you must check your child regularly with an expert doctor. Treatment may include antibiotics, cutting, and draining to cysts, if the antibiotics does get the infection may increase. Inject substance remove the cyst if the child cannot have surgery.[1]Microsoft Word – 112-118 doc.doc ([2] duct cyst.pdf[3]

Reviewed by:

Dr. Shahid Bukhari

MBBS, FCPS (Medicine)

Ex. Registrar DOW Medical College Karachi

Medical Officer Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi

Our reviewers’ details, Click Here

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