Hyperkeratosis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Hyperkeratosis is basically an abnormal condition in which the outer layer of the epidermis of the skin is extremely thicker than in the normal condition. It is often surrounded by the presence of abnormal amounts of keratin, which is the type of protein that accumulates at the granular layer of the skin. So another name for hyperkeratosis is hyperkalemia.

Keratin is a tough, thread-like protein found in approximately all parts of the body such as skin, hairs, nails, and in muscles. In hyperkeratosis conditions, the body may produce extra or excessive amounts of keratin as a result the body may swell up in a protective response to the high pressure or by the genetic condition.

A well-known fact about hyperkeratosis

There are so many types of hyperkeratosis, which are divided into distinct forms.

First of all, the doctor will examine or perform a physical test on these lesions.

And they suggested that these are the conditions of eczema or psoriasis.

Forms of hyperkeratosis

There are several forms of hyperkeratosis in which the most common present among the families is running over generation over generation. These are prolonged and take several times to recover. It is one of the forms that require proper treatment and does not disappear without medication. The hyperkeratosis is the genetic or inherited based disease which are passed on generation over generation and persisted out the life forms.

Types of hyperkeratosis

There are following types of hyperkeratosis in which some of it is based on genetic or inherited factors so some of the following diseases are discussed in detail. So these names are follows

  • Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis
  • Focal acral hyperkeratosis
  • Follicular hyperkeratosis
  • Actinic hyperkeratosis

Causes of Hyperkalemia

The proximate diseases are as follows:

4- Dry skin 4- Bubble baths 4- Extreme temperature 4- Irritating soaps 4- Radiations of sunlight 4- Genetic radiations 4- Skin response

Other factors also involve lacking certain ions such as vitamins A, C, and E.

Such as a lack of vitamin A can lead to chronic disease which can have a harmful impact on the other genes. Arsenic is a harmful element with the sign as an atomic number 33.

Hyperkeratosis disease can also be caused by a B-ray avoidance drug such as vemurafenib b and comes from V600E dabrafenib b is a drug for the treatment of cancer associated with gene B-rays.

Pressure also related to hyperkeratosis shows the result of high pressure or irritation to skin.

Hyperkeratosis is also known as a fatal disease affecting the skin condition characterized by rough actinic keratosis brown yellow papules of nose flat top.

In mucous membranes:

Hyperkeratosis is used to connect with abnormal changes in the tissue of mucous membranes as leukokeratosis. There is a difference between the mucous membrane and the skin, for example formation p d keratin i.e., look in Leukoplakia, an increase in the thickened keratin layer of the epithelium

Symptoms

Hyperkalemia has a wide area or expanse of different symptoms which are found in varied areas of skin. Anyhow, all the symptoms of hyperkeratosis which are found in different areas of the skin including rough or rigid scrapes have been seen on the upper layer of the skin in which you feel different from the other area of the skin.

Some more common or predictable symptoms are found to include as:

  • Calluses
  • Corns
  • Eczema
  • Epidermal Hyperkalemia
  • Leukoplakia
  • Irritation plaques

It has many kinds of symptoms that mainly involve changes in skin color or formation of such areas on skin that are different from normal skin, some of its symptoms are:

  1. a)  Dandruff
  2. b)  Changes in skin color
  3. c)  Alopecia aerates
  4. d)  Scaling
  5. e)  Ringworm
  6. f)   Localized hair loss

Lack of vitamin E, vitamin A, and vitamin B complexes have been involved in causing the condition.

Diagnosis

Imaging test

It is more applicable in the medical field because tumors may be present in the bone marrow structure with an unpredictable problem in that place of hyperkeratosis areas. By this method

we examine the disease in which type of the symptoms has been present which is more feasible for the medical specialist or physician.

Biopsy

A biopsy is another determining or diagnosing tool in which we take the samples of cancerous cells taken under the microscope or other types of abnormalities. In most other circumstances a doctor can diagnose the unviewed signs of the disease via physical demonstration. This method is more feasible or more applicable in medical scope treatment to cure diseases.

Treatment

Treatment of skin cancer depends on the patient’s health condition and age. Doctors or dermatologists recommended the following treatments:

Medical operation

Dermatologists recommended medical operations in such patients who have more isolated wounds. The following procedures are used to get rid of these isolated wounds with the help of surgery.

Peel off skin

Dermatologists used special types of chemicals which they apply on the skin of patients to peel off the uppermost layer of skin. After a few days, new skin regenerates in the place of removed skin.

In this treatment, a dermatologist uses the fluid of nitrogen to stop or intimidate the working of upper tissues of the skin which after a period removes out a new skin regenerate.

Figurative analysis

In this treatment dermatologist recommended the patient of actinic keratosis special type of ointment or gel to apply it on the isolated wound if the patient used this ointment on the affected wound of his skin, this ointment or gel would start to work to minimize the chances of skin cancer.

Composite Treatment

Dermatologists suggested a large number of remedies to cure skin wounds.

Surgical treatment

Stifling treatment

Pacific daylight time

All the above treatments are used to cure skin cancer in affected patients.

Medications

There are different types of medication in which doctors can be prescribed or suggested to treat or analyze the disease of hyperkeratosis such as eczema is the severe disease of hyperkalemia/ hyperkeratosis. So, these suggestions are described as follows;

  • Hydrocortisone ointments or creams
  • Systemic Mineralocorticoid
  • Antibiotics
  • Antiviral and antifungal medicine
  • Medicinal drugs/ pertactin
  • Phototherapy

Hydrocortisone ointment or creams

There are many varied types of anti-inflammatory medicines or drugs that can be used to cure the disease of hyperkeratosis and they should be used to relieve the signs/indications of eczemas such as skin swelling and rashes irritation, then these ointments are applied directly on the skin surfaces.

Prevention

All we use comfortable shoes which give relaxation to your feet and also use protective covering and its treatment helps them by wearing properly fitted shoes and try taking other self-care measures. [1]Hyperkeratosis – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf (nih.gov) [2]Skin – Hyperkeratosis (nih.gov) [3]Hyperkeratosis – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics [4]https://lohmann-rauscher.co.uk/downloads/Consensus-on-Hyperkeratosis-of-the-Lower-Limb-1478245071.pdf

Reviewed by:

1. Dr. Shahid Bukhari

MBBS, FCPS (Medicine)

Ex. Registrar DOW Medical College Karachi

Medical Officer Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi

2. Dr. Akhtar Nawaz Lak

MBBS, FCPS (Internal Medicine)

Ex. Medical Specialist, Services hospital, Lahore

Ex. Medical Specialist, Allied hospital, Faisalabad

Our reviewers’ details, Click Here

References

References
1Hyperkeratosis – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf (nih.gov)
2Skin – Hyperkeratosis (nih.gov)
3Hyperkeratosis – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
4https://lohmann-rauscher.co.uk/downloads/Consensus-on-Hyperkeratosis-of-the-Lower-Limb-1478245071.pdf

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