Cryptorchidism – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Last Updated on February 2, 2023 by Dr. Saqib Mueed

Table of Contents

“It is a disease in which the absences of one or two testes in the scrotum where they develop are called cryptorchidism”.

During the developing life, the testis formed at the side of the mesonephric kidney and originates through the inguinal canal to the scrotum. Cryptorchidism is the result of the reproduction-in effect, the testis fails to pass completely into the scrotum by six months of age. In animals, the undifferentiated gonad transferred into the testis and ovaries through sexual determination. The process is determined genetically, the ovarian determination is less than testicular determination.


Cryptorchidism derived from the Greek word Krypto’s mean ” hidden” and orchids mean “testicle”. In cryptorchidism, a block that has not played into a suitable point into the pouch of terms hovering down penis since the delivery commonly lawful single ballot is distressed. Yet backward 10% of occasion twin ballots are under.

In eighteen centuries, the scientist Hunter first of all discovered the process of descent. In the nineteen-century, the scientist Rosenmerkal occupied surgical orchiopexy. In the mid in nineteen centuries, the scientist Annan dale performed the first successful orchiopexy.

Testicular pedigree

This stage of the disease is essential for the normal production of sperm is required minimum temperature of sac. Testicular pedigree divides in the phase.

  • The test is passing through the abdomen to the inguinal area.
  • Development of the groins canal
  • Testis passed through the inguinal.
  • The stage starts at 8 weeks during gestation.


Cryptorchidism is classified into two types. A palpable testis present in 80% and not

Palpable in 20%. The palpable testes consist of the undescended testis, ectopic testis, and retractile testis.

 Undescended testis

Undescended testis is a testis caused by a descent path. It may be and may not be palpable. The inguinal testis is the best term, as it has to stop with the normal descent way in the groin canal. When peeping, the testis moves into and out of the internal ring.

A gliding undescended move into or out of the groin ring but these are unbalanced in the testes, they are the best term. The higher testis is related to less distance, spermatic vessels, and duct abnormality.

Ectopic gland

Ectopic gland that is located outside of the unexpected side. The site of utopia exists in the groin pouch, located in Scarpa’s fascia above the canal. It is in a different position. Increased utopia, a testis passed to the pouch septum and included the inner abdomen wall.

Retractile gland

A retractile gland is a process present in the groin. They activate the cremasteric reaction and function of the genitofemoral nerve present at the early age of males. When the reaction is selected by the physicality of the femur, The strength of the spermatic cord contracts.

A cremaster protects the testis by harm’ way. A retractile testis occurred in the 2 to 12 years. These can be controlled into the scrotum; it remains at least temporarily. The undescended testis pulls back into the groin and normal, smaller, and softer. Retractile testes are not normal and then observed during immaturity.


The first stage, all fetuses develop in the male and female reproductive organs. The children received sex chromosomes from the mother and father and consist of a pair of the DNA molecule. The XX in the female fetus and XY male fetus. Development of testis promoted by XY gene produces hormones for growth of the male reproductive tract preventing the female reproductive tract.

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) develops the genital development. Genetically disordered testosterone develops by XY fetuses. Female newborns have a small pouch vagina, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes are not present. In the inguinal canal, testis is present. In other cases, the environmental factors and genetic combination disturb the hormone.

Physical change can take place. Testicle development changes nerve activity. The accurate purpose of the collapse block cannot be known, a sequence of hereditary devoted ethnicity and another conditioning element. They can disturb foreign objectives, reform and nerve information which power the success of the block.


There are many symptoms included in this.

  • Reason for harsh crotch sting.
  • Male cannot develop his puberty condition.
  • In this male cannot grow more.
  • If there is a limited reason chance an undescended block might develop.
  • The scrotum is small on the affected side.
  • The testicle has become the testicular torsion causing severe groin pain.
  • If the testicular is sufferer, the scrotum is seen on one side.
  • Sometimes, a baby’s testicles are present or sometimes absent. These are called testicle retractile and no treatment is required.
  • There is commonly one clue that a male has an undescended block.
  • The ball sac arises without growth or is tiny on a distress minor.
  • There are two types of symptoms. It may be palpable and nonpalpable.


If a newborn baby has cryptorchidism. The physician used for potential treatment.


A tiny canal consisting of one camera stuck in a male tummy. But laparoscopy indicates an inner ultrasound of the belly of the testis. But I might need additional surgery in a few cases. Another laparoscopy can display never testes locate or tiny fragments of without work testis tissue which is at that point clear way.

 Open Surgery

Blunt analysis of belly or scotch over higher scratch can be crucial in a few cautions. Due to larger cuts, investigate the abdomen. This process is very necessary in more cases. In many cases, the testicles are absent and form a medical problem after birth.

An MRI scan with contrast agent

The doctor introduced the factor into the blood circulating through the body of the animal. The testicle present in the abdomen. If both testes are absent, the doctor advised the genetic test to find out sex chromosomes. Some female babies are ambiguous. In this case, a doctor may use …

The ultrasound used to check the undescended testicle.

Blood and urine test to find out hormone level.

Sex chromosomes can be identifying by a genetic test.


Cancer of the testicular commonly starts in which cells the block which creates premature gamete cancer. A person who has an undescended block raises the chance of testicular cancer.

  • Infertility
  • Trauma
  • Groin Rupture:
  • Tumor
  • Torsion


Types of Treatment

There are many types of treatment for cryptorchidism.

  • Hormonal treatment
  • Allopatric treatment
  • Homeopathic treatment
  • Domestic measures

This type of treatment includes:

  • surgical treatment
  • medication
  • hormonal treatment

Surgical treatment

The doctor advised the patient for surgery to move the hidden testicle into the scrotum. The term orchiopexy means the testicle moves into the groin and the testicle moves into the scrotum by surgically. The term orchiopexy hidden testicle is low into the belly and scrotum moved by surgery.


In this condition, the children’s testicles are present in their belly and their blood

vessels are not increased enough to reach the scrotum. The physician gives a different type of surgery to that patient. The oblique and fascia of scrap consist of an inguinal pouch for the dissection.

During the movement of the string opened the external oblique due to inguinal ligament. The nerve is saved carefully. The cremasteric muscle is not attached to the sperm cord. An undescended testis is commonly accurate with surgery. The doctors are the surgeons, they are very careful about the surgery of the testes.

Open Surgery

Blunt analysis of the belly or crotch over a higher scratch can be crucial in a few cautions. The tumors are separated from the scrotum with the spermatic cord.

Side Effect of Surgery

It is a generally a safe method of treatment but there may be some harmful results.

  • Microbial infections
  • Arteries and veins may be injured
  • Others serve problems like fever, cold, pneumonia, and attacks, etc.

Domestic treatment

The patient must take a balanced diet.  And must follow precautionary measures prescribed by a physician. [1]Copyright ([2]

Reviewed by:

Dr. Shahid Bukhari

MBBS, FCPS (Medicine)

Ex. Registrar DOW Medical College Karachi

Medical Officer Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi

Our reviewers’ details, Click Here

Leave a Comment