Herpes labalis: oral infection with burning & pain

Last Updated on March 14, 2023 by Dr. Saqib Mueed

Herpes Labalis is a condition causing mouth area infection. It is also known as an oral infection. The responsible causative agent in Herpes simplex virus. This virus is carried by half the adults in the United State.

Because this infection is very common so it can easily be transferred from one person to another. Lips are primarily affected by this. Sore and blister are found in mouth areas such as tough and gums.

It includes burning pain. Fever is accompanied by the first attack and sometimes by a sore throat. Sometimes lymph nodes are enlarged and cause herpes Labalis.

A virus not active at the start it remains dormant. It is known as the virus of face infection. In the second attack, the virus became active and causes this infection.

Usually, people use creams for this infection. But infection will reduce within a few days.

Another outbreak of sores in lips or mouth creates when the virus periodically reactive. A virus that is known as herpes simplex virus type 1 is responsible for this infection.

This infection is spread from one person to another without any sexual contact. The strike may be repeated by menstrual periods or fever, physiological stress, and sunlight.

Genital herpes has resulted in direct contact with genitals.                         

Specific testing is used to confirm the symptoms and their diagnosis. Avoid kissing and avoiding by using personal items of a person who is offered by the herpes Labalis.

Nine herpes simplex virus affects the human in all cases the host is only the human, but it is only one case it is rare in human all the Herpes simplex viruses are of similar characters including structure genetic makeup.

Due to poor sanitation and hygienic condition transmission rate is higher in these countries herpes simplex virus 1 generally affect the mouth and oral area herpes simplex virus 2 can also affect the region of the genitalia.

This circular DNA replicates during the replication of DNA-by-DNA polymerase enzyme of the host when the virus is performing the lysogenic phase in lytic phase the virus uses its own DNA polymerase to replicate it circular DNA. Sometimes the viral DNA incorporates into the host genome as provirus.

All six types of viruses show two types of the life cycle the lytic and latent.

In the latent cycle, only a few genes are expressed which are regulated by a fewer number of regulatory genes the expression of these genes is necessary for the replication of the circular DNA of the virus. The circular DNA is transcribed by host RNA polymerase 2 into mRNA in a latent cycle the virus remains in the host without showing the symptoms of the disease this is identified by the host immune system as an unharmful agent, but it has the capability of causing the diseases and starts the lytic cycles

In lytic cycles a large number of genes expression takes place for the synthesis of the viral genome and ultimately causing the host cell death.

symptoms and sign

Usually, symptoms are not shown by the herpes infection. Topically two weeks are enough to resolve the symptoms if occur.

The infection of the mucosa of the cheek and gums is the main symptom of oral infection.There is a lot of other symptoms such

  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Headache

The symptoms of this infection such as redness and swelling are produced in healthy cells.

Tiny vesicles appear around the lips. They are very painful and produced within 2 to3 days after infection.

These vesicles also form clusters and occur in different areas such as around the lips, on the nose, and sometimes on the cheek and chin.

After 4th day these vesicles start to burst and viral infection liquid starts to release from these vesicles.

The major reason for the formation of these vesicles is fever and sometimes swollen lymph glands.

After 5 to 6 days of this infection, a yellow or brown scab is starting to envelop around these vesicles. This is not a typical cover rather it is a protein which is called immune globulin.

And this protein is used as a healing process. And this protein also forms blood serum. Sometimes the sore became pain full when cracking starts in the scab. This is caused by smiling or stretches the lips, and during eating the cracking is also caused.

Diagnosis of Herpes Labalis

The HSV is diagnosed clinically and can be identified. Most laboratory technicians say that they can identify perfectly the presence of HSV. But the studies show that the clinical testing of HSV is poor and not fully accurate. The HSV is tested clinically with the help of four tests and the virus can be identified with their antigen and its nucleic acid or the serum test of the blood of the patient or culturing the virus.

This test takes about 5 to 6 days the result can be either positive taking Five days or it can be negative taking six days. The HSV can be detected with their antigen by using an enzyme called enzyme immunoassay but its detection sensibility is low than other techniques for example the sensitivity of the viral culture technique is about 65 to 81 percent than the viral nucleic acid

Healing of Herpes Labalis

It starts within 9-14 days at the affected areas the new skin starts to reproduce, and the virus starts shedding. 

Bud during the process of healing the pain, itching irritation, and redness is common.

HSV infection are cured with different type’s drugs which are commercially available.

Causes of Herpes Labalis

The infection may be caused by a virus. When this virus comes in contact which a special region such as the mucosal area. And caused infection it is called the herpes simplex virus type 1. But this kind of virus type causes an infection which is mostly 10 to 50%of oral infections.

Many other factors are responsible for this infection. Such as Sunburn, stress, fever, sunlight menstruation, or another local skin issue. It may be spread by a surgical instrument or during dental surgery. Sometimes the hospital staff or family members who have cold sores are responsible for this infection in newborns. 

Prevention of Herpes Labalis

The chance of HSV infection can be reduced by using good hygienic but in the case of HSV carrier and clinically undetectable virus, the hygienic measure is not much effective.

The HSV is a contagious disease and spread from the contact and touch so the person having acute mucocutaneous disease should be kept separate and its secretion should not be touched. Genital herpes can be reduced by using a condom, but it does not completely vanish the effect and transmission of disease.

The transmission of herpes from a mother having genital herpes to a child can be reduced by using cesarean delivery. But it does not completely stop the effect of transmission.

Some behaviors are helpful to stop the spreading of infection. These are when an outbreak is occurring washing hands is necessary to avoid oral sex avoid such atoms that come in contact with the mouth avoid kissing. Prevention is necessary because the search for this infection becomes difficult.

The human immune system and some antigens are used to kill this infection virus. No special kind of vaccine or treatment is available.[1]498.pdf (cda-adc.ca)[2]Herpes Labialis – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics 

Reviewed by:

Dr. Akhtar Nawaz Lak

MBBS, FCPS (Internal Medicine)

Ex. Medical Specialist, Services hospital, Lahore

Ex. Medical Specialist, Allied hospital, Faisalabad

Our reviewers’ details, Click Here

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