Frontal lobe injury | A severe head injury

There are four lobes present in the brain, the frontal lobe is one of them. But it controls major functions such as human skills like memory making, sexual behavior etc. So it is also called the control panel. They are also responsible for motor function. They are larger in size and they are less developed in organisms but in humans. They are more developed

Frontal lobe disorder 

In human brain the frontal lobe is higher its mass and having restricted and less in movement and they are present at the posterior portion for the brain region.

The cerebral system is the part of the frontal lobe. They are responsible for good and bad choices. Frontal lobe injury causes the inability of regular behaviors. Frontal lobe injury causes the deficiency of selection, initiation, planning, self-correction, sequencing, etc.

Frontal lobe is control many skills such as problem solving, judgment, sexual behaviors etc. ‘so the control panel’ of brain is a frontal lobe and Frontal lobe also help for communications to other persons. So damage to the frontal lobe changes the mood and regular behaviors.

Controlling function after frontal lobe disorder

The disorder causes many diseases in person but they infect the childhood age. Because the childhood age is a very sensitive age where the developmental brain process takes place such as memory making, impulse control, language awareness etc the frontal lobe injury person increases day by day

Theory about frontal lobe function

  1. Single-process theory

   In case the single parts of the frontal lobe may cause many syndromes

  1. Multi-process theory

   In these cases the frontal lobe is made up of numbers of compounds that can do normal every day activity

  1. Construct-led theory

   In these cases if all the frontal lobe parts are not working they can affect the working of memory

  1.  Single-symptom theory

   In these cases the frontal lobe disorder causes many sexual syndromes

Types of frontal syndromes

 They are three types of frontal lobe syndromes which are following

  1. Orbitofrontal syndrome

      In these conditions the patients are incapable in impulse control, difficult to maintain conditions, difficult to control emotions, lack of judgments etc

  1. Frontal convexity syndrome

     In these cases the patient shows disinterest, slowing motor functions, unplay ahead, lack of motivation etc

  1. Medial frontal syndrome

      In these cases the patient shows low sensation in the lower lobe, reduced movement and also shows the indifferences between thirst and hunger etc

Causes of frontal lobe disorder

  1.  Dementia

   The most common type of disorder in which the person is affected under the age of 65 is a group of disorders. Which affects the frontal and temporal lobe of the brain. in which the person changes their mood and personality

  •   Poor judgment
  •   Lack of inhibition
  •   Compulsive behavior
  •   Inability for planning
  •   Abrupt mood changes
  •   Speech difficulties
  1.  Stroke

   In which the vessel which are responsible to carry the blood to frontal lobe may be damage due to bleeding and interptions of blood so the frontal lobe cannot work properly

Other causes

      Frontal lobe injury having tumors is caused, behavioral and limits the knowledge, inhibits the motivations, loss of sense of smell and vision, one side of body are paralyzed, limit mental abilities and also affect the primary and secondary memory loss

  •   Huntington’s disease

       It is a genetic disorder which is caused due to damage of brain cells in the brain and it affects the mental ability which has no cure

  •   Infections

     Certain types of infections such as clotting in the brain. Which may cause infection and same types of bacterial and viral infection may cause frontal lobe disorder

  •   Cerebral Palsy

      The palsy may be caused due to infections or tumors and certain types of nerve cells which may damage due to certain types of disease

Effects of frontal lobe disorder

  •   Speech problem

     The frontal lobe injury affect the human speech to the patient cannot speak well because the patient cannot understand the languages

  •   Changes in personality

     The frontal lobe disorders change the person’s personality and they become more angry and judge the condition quickly without knowing about any conditions

  •   Poor coordination

      The patient cannot coordinate with the other person and cannot maintain the conditions

  •   Difficulties in impulse control

     The major and important functions of frontal lobe impulse control which are responsible for coordinate the body motor and sensory functions if the frontal lobe damage them may affect the impulse control

  •   Trouble in planning

      The frontal lobe injury patients are trouble in making plans

  •   Low motivation

         In the case of low motivation the patient cannot believe own-self and they have no ability to motivate them-self

  •   Low ability of creativity

      In the frontal lobe disorder person they have low ability to create the things and having low creativity values

  •   Reduced and increase sexual interest

      The patient becomes more or less interested in sexual behaviors

  •   Depression

      The frontal lobe injury also causes depression in patients and changes in good and bad habits. The right frontal lobe is important for increasing the negative mood response and the left lobe decreases the negative mood

But in the case of depression the right frontal lobe is responsible for decreasing the depression or the left increasing them. so in the case of left frontal lobe damage may increase the depression and cause inability

Disease cause by frontal lobe

  • Alzheimer disease

   These are frontal lobe disease and cause the loss of short – term memory and also cause the muscle contraction and the person cannot feed themselves during these diseaseThe disease present in patient 7 to 10 years and the patient become die due to heart attack and brain infection and brain tumors etc

  • Parkinson disease

   This is also a frontal lobe disease in these cases the muscles become rigid and loss of physical movement also disease the motor function

  • Schizophrenia

   In this case the patient becomes physically inactive because of the neurotransmitters. Which are important for transmitting the nerve are affected and they change the activity of the frontal and parietal lobe

Effect of frontal lobe damage in childhood

      In the childhood frontal lobe damage can be seen by three general abilities

  1.  Self-regulation
  2.  The limit of attention resources
  3.  The knowledge and the ability to act

The major function of the frontal lobe is behavioral structure. and the ability to learn which are specific to the cortical and subcortical regions of the brain

 Neuropsychological effects

  1.  Memory and attention

     The patients which have frontal lobe injury may often complain about that. They have a substantial memory loss. because the frontal lobe is associated with long-term memory and certain types of stand red memory test can be diagnosed

The frontal lobe disorder patient. They occur because of not the memory system itself. But the frontal lobe functions are affected. Which are responsible for memory making or facilitated in working memory

Working memory is a closed relation with attention. Working memories are not simply how much we carry the information at a time period. But also explain the primary memory or secondary memory. In primary memory a smaller part of memory is retrieved and secondary memory higher information is retrieved by an individual. The patient with frontal lobe disorder lacks memory making

  1. Risk taking

   The certain impulse may cause many types of frontal lobe disorder. During this the patient quickly makes decisions without knowing the risk

But they think about reward only and cannot see the consequences because they lack the self – control. So the risk taking can easily be explained in the gambling test in frontal lobe injury or disorder

Diagnosis test for frontal lobe injury

  1. Gambling task

In these gambling tests there is an inverse relationship between the reward proximity of and the reward of value. If the proximity of reward is high then the value of reward is low. But if the proximity of reward is low then that value is high. For testing the frontal lobe injury in individuals the card is placed

Which face facing downward one card is the winning card and the other card is the loser card. The card was removed in the pile and randomly added the cards so the winning cards are present anywhere and told the testing person that they will stop the flipping of the card any time.

The lesser cards show that the winning cards are Not present in the piles. But if more cards are present there will be more chances to win and finding the winning card. So the person having frontal lobe disorder cannot make the decision and even not take any risks

  1. Saccade

     In the saccade test, is a simple movement eye test. There are two types so saccade test which are following

  1. Prosaccade
  2. Antisaccade
  3. Prosaccade

   In these cases the patient is allowed to focus the flashing of light

  1. Antisaccade

   In these cases the patient is allowed to focus opposite to the flashing of light

 In these tests the frontal lobe injury person cannot focus on the flashing light in the prosaccade and not focus on the opposite to the light in the antisaccade test

  1. Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST)

 The Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) is used from conjunctions to other tests. The frontal lobe which is the larger and main part of the brain and performs important and major functions of the brain. But modern science proved that the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) does not diagnose the frontal lobe disorder and is not important

Flaws in Testing

In these cases the impulsivity and risk control are commonly observed. The degree of quality without subjectivity is not easy to search. The flaws in testing are not a straightforward method. In this case, the method is measured by comparing the data of different sources

Single testing such as WSCT cannot be used for the study and measurement of frontal injury. The patients having frontal lobe disorder complain of having a minimum memory loss. The patients in the standard test are normal

But if we limit the standard test the patient is diagnosed. The memories are controlled by the frontal lobe but they are the magnum function for the diagnosis. it is important to understand the frontal lobe injury major functions

Treatments of frontal lobe 

Treatment of frontal lobe injury depend upon some cause for example infections can be control with the help of antibiotics and brain tumor can be treated with the help of surgery and chemotherapy or radiations.

  1. Memory and Attention Problems

 The frontal lobe injury also affect the memory and attention problem by affecting the long-term memory

Treatment:

   The best way to treat the condition is by exercise and improving memory skills

  1. Reduced Motor Skills

   The frontal lobe injury may also damage the motor skills and reduce them

Treatment:

   In these condition we may allow to activated the neuroplasticity of brain. so other parts of brain functions the frontal lobe function to reduce the damage. For example if the grip for holding the things is low than exercise make the grip of holding things are improved

  1. Sudden Changes in Behavior or Personality

   The frontal lobe is responsible for controlling the emotions and other behaviors due to the frontal lobe injury. The person cannot control their anger and depressions

Treatment:

   The person may recover by sudden change in behavior by recovering the frontal lobe injury

Frontal Lobe Damage Treatment

  •   Understand your behavior
  •   Let people in
  •   Stay positive
  •   Prepare for ambiguous loss

Frontal Lobotomy

     This is in the form of psychosurgery which is used for frontal or mental disorders

Recovery of frontal lobe

   The frontal lobe can be recovered or healed. Because the brain heals itself and there is always recovery for the injury and brain disease. So brain injury  can be recovered for proper medicines and for proper preservation.

 

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