Para coccidioidomycosis | harmful fungal infection

Para coccidioidomycosis  is  very dangerous disease. It  was  founded  in  the  brazil  and  the  American Country  .It  was  attacked  by  children’s  as  well  as  adults  .The  adults  of  the  age  20 to  25   are  the  most  affected. This  disease  was  spread  due  to  a  fungus  call  precocious .

It  was  founded  in  the  people  with  work  in  the  areas  where  it  was  present . It attacked the  skin  and  caused  the  spot  formation.  The pain is very heavies caused as this caught. Its spores are attacked on the skin and entered the blood. There they live and cause the fertilization.  This increases in number and the egg becomes large and the sport forms.

This is also known as South American blastomycosis. Different fungus causes blastomycosis which is caused by PCM (Para coccidioidomycosis).

Occurrence of Para coccidioidomycosis 

It is mycosis of lungs skin mucus and membrane .It also damage  the  lymphatic  systems  and  the  organs  which  belong to  the  lymphatic  systems .It  was  spreads  due  to  fungus  It  was  founded  in  the  brazil  and  the  pain  in  the  skin  and  the  abdomen  was  major.

The cure was very difficult but when the medicine is given to the patients as a medicine used for its prevention.

History of Para coccidioidomycosis 

There were different scientists to study the disease and its symptoms. They also study the transformation of disease. A list of scientists is given below.

Its first case was reported in 1892 Its  first  case  was  discovered  in  the  nineteenth    was  the  time  of  the  year  of  1892 Many  scientists  work  on  this  disease  .

Of  some  names  are  as  the  said  as  hospital  the  clinicals.It  was  a  medical  center  was  developed  by  Jose  de  san .This  was  to  discovered  the  infection  of  the disease and  fined  the  germs  of  their  disease  finned  by  the patients.They  constructed  a  laboratory  and  cultured  the  fungus  .

The  make  examine  under  the  microscope  fined  that  this  was  Para coccidioidomycosis.It  was  first  discovered  in  brazil .It was  also  reported  in  twenty  century .

This disease is very dangerous to organisms specially for humans.

Italo-Brazilian Parasitologist and Florian Paulo de Almeida in (1898-1977) Brazilian pathologist   the study was done in brazil and this disease was discovered in the tenths century It was found in other countries such as.

  1. North American blastomycosis.
  2. List of cutaneous conditions.

Symptoms of Para coccidioidomycosis 

This  disease  is  caused  by  infection .It  is  mostly  occur  in  men  who  are  working  in  outdoor  places .It  is  caused  by  fungus  called  Paracoccidioidomycosis .

The  common  symptoms  are  included  as  the  spot  on  skin  and  lungs .This  is  very  dangerous  disease  as  of  mouth  and  lunges .

Age wise its symptoms are different.  As  adults  the symptoms  are  on  spots  on the throat  and  mouth.  The looseness of the voice included it.

In  children  the  symptoms  included  as  swollen  the  lymph  node  and  cause  the  severe  pain .It  can  occur  in  healthy  people  and  caused  by  paracoccidioidomicosis.

The immune system of the person is on the weekend gradually.

A  Visitor  Jack  had  when  he visited Brazil  and  he  had  caught  the  symptoms  including  a cough  .  pain  in  throat , spots  on  skin  ,weight  lose  ,  weaker  ,  quickly  sick  day  by day  .

Today the scientists find the following symptoms. The symptoms of Paracoccidioidomycosis are very dangerous and terrifying to look at. These included as:

 

  • Productive cough

 

  • The lesions of  the  mouth  and  throat

 

  • The  rapidly  weight  loss 

 

  • The  swollen  of  the  lymph  nodes 

 

  • The  fast  fever 

 

  • Skin Ulcers

 

  • The  fatigue

 

The other common symptoms included as:

1)    Breathe shortness.

2)  Productive cough.

3)  Hemoptysis.

4)  Weight loss.

5)  Fever.

6)  Fatigue.

7)  Visually lesions are present on the face.

8)  Skin ulcers.

9)  Adenitis.

10)  Pain in the abdominal organ involvement.

Enlarged liver and spleen

Pain in abdominal organ involvement

Pattern of the Para coccidioidomycosis 

The pattern of the disease is

Mucocutaneous:

In  this  pattern  the  infection wea  attacked  on  to  the  face  and  mouth .It  was  also  attacked  on  the  nasal  cavity  and  the  pathway  of  nasal  cavity .The  yeast  was  present  in  this  process .It  attacked  as  in  the  granular  forms  .

Lymphatic:

In  this  process  the  fungus  attacked  on  the  cervical  parts  and  on  the  axillary  parts.  The nodes become large and large.

Visceral:

In  this  method  the  liver  , spleen  and  the  abdominal  nodes  become  large  and  cause  pain  in  the  nodes.

Causes of Para coccidioidomycosis 

There are the following causes of PCM (Paracoccidioidomycosis).

  •         It is the Infection occurs in the lungs.
  •         It is also spread to the skin.
  •         It is also found in the Mucous membrane.
  •         It is also present in the other parts of the body.
  •         It is also found in Lymph nodes.
  •         Paracoccidioidomycosis most in men aged 20 to 50.
  •         It is as Yeast a pilot’s wheel like appearance.
  •         It is like Paracoccidioidomycosis infects the child in Brazil.
  •         It is fertile.

Mechanism of Para coccidioidomycosis 

Para coccidioidomycosis is   caused by the fungus. This fungus infects the respiratory tract of the host. The throat of the patient was infected seriously. PCM involves in the mucous membrane, bones, lungs, systemic mycosis causes disease in immunocompetent hosts.

                   This increases the fungus aggressiveness. It rarely caused disease in fertile age women. Primary infection is sometimes called   as asymptomatic valley fever. Also occurs with high prostrating fever.

               Young people appear in the form of akin. Painful lesions start in the lips pulmonary involvement start as lobar pneumonia. On the ninth day, the patient is fertile and coughs without remission. Other organs, bones, arteries, spleen and meninges are involved but these are very rare.

                 Chronic Para coccidioidomycosis develops pulmonary fibrosis. PCM shows characteristics of wheel shaped yeast.

Diagnosis of Para coccidioidomycosis 

The  diagnosis  of  this  disease is detected  through  the  patient  history  and  live  style  checking .

The  history  tell  the  patients  lively  hood  and  the  symptoms  that  cause  by  this  disease  as  described  above .When  a  fungus  is  sometime  detected  on  the  body  of  the  patients  the  disease  started .By  checking  it  under  microscope  we  can  understand  the  symptoms  and  the  disease  of  its The fungus can be culture into the laboratory and the fungus visualised and the examiner under the microscope.

The  diagnosis  can  be  easily  done  by  cutting  a  Piece  of  infected  areas  of  patients  and  examining them  under a microscope  .It  is  also  cultured  in  laboratories  and  when  it  increases  in  number  the  microscopic  examination  can  occur  to  scientists .

Testing:

A  health  care  can  be  provided  to  symptoms  to  health  people  and  test  to  the  sick  people  required .The  generally  test  is  x-ray  test .Under  the  examination  the  x-ray  test  is  helpful  to  diagnose  it .

Aften  health  care  also  provided  biopsy  to  check  this  disease  symptoms .In  this  the  infected  person  can  be  took  in  to  laboratory  .A  part  of  it  body  cut  and  examine  it  under  microscope  .It  is  cultured  in  the  lab  and  also  increase  in the  number .After  this  the  sample  put  on  the  stage  of  microscope  and  examine  it  under  low  and  high  magnification .Some  time  blood  sample  is  more  helpful  to  testing  the  paracoccidioidomycosis .

Diagnosis is given below.

  1. Biopsy of infected tissue.  
  2. Shows characteristics of wheel-shaped yeast.
  3. Culture.
  4. Superficial scrapings.
  5. In the majority cases radiography of the chest reveals interstitial infiltrates.

Epidemiology of Para coccidioidomycosis 

PCM is prevalent in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela and also in rural areas. The patient men aged 30 to 50 years old.

How can we get paracoccidioidomycosis?

It usually  occurs  in  those  people  who live  in  rural  areas  and  work  in  the  outdoors  . The  fungus  can be attacked  in  the  age  of  adult  more  but  the  children are  mostly  infected .Their  skin  and  face  are  spotted  as  granules .  The  fungus  entered  into  the  mouth  of  a  person  and  cause  infection  .

When  this  fungus  present  in  the  air  , by  breathing  it  can  be  entered .So  the  symptoms  causes  it  and  person  become  infected.The  fungus  increase  the  number  into  the  body  and  increase  the  risk  of  disease .

Preventions from paracoccidioidomycosis:

Those  people  which  lives  in  the  outer  areas  like  rural  areas  the  fungus  must  present  in  the  air  and  cause  infection  .So  it  is  very  difficult  to  prevent  from  the  infection  because  it  is  present  in  air  .The  people  who  live  in  these  areas  not  infected  because  they  are  resistant  to  this  fungus .

But the  people  comes  from  outer  areas  caught  it  very  firstly . They can not bear this infection. So, the fungus attacked him. The  symptoms  started  of  disease  and  the  person  became  sick .

Sources of Para coccidioidomycosis 

The  exact  transmission  of  this  disease  is  not  known  by  scientists .But  those  people  which  live  in  the  rural  areas  sent  their  children  to  outdoor  jobs .

Where  this  fungus  caught  accidently  to  them  .By  breathing  it  reach  in to  the  body  increase  in  number  so  the  infection  started .The  exact  time  and  season  not  known  to  the  scientists .It  is  found  in  south  central  America . It  is  also  found  in  Brazilian  areas  .It  is  also  found  in  armadillo  areas  .

Number of patients recorded:

There  were  more  than  15000  people  which  are  recorded  in  1930  .This  number  was  very  high  in  the  brazil .All  the  people  symptoms  was  same  .  They lived  in  the  rural  areas .In  these  areas  the  number  of  patients  was  about  80%. But  this   case  was  rare  in  the  United  States  because  the  number  of  patients  reported  in  these  areas  were  about  5% only  .

The  death  rate  of  the  sick  people  was  about  5%  .

Life cycle of Para coccidioidomycosis 

The life cycle of  the  coccidiosis is  consists  as  following  stages:

When  a  man  worked  in  the  field  or  in the  soil  the  fungus  is  founded  there  .So  they  cause  attached  to  the  man  and the  symptoms  started.

Mycelia:

It is the first stage formed by the fungus.  As  man  worked  ,There  are  so  many  arthroconidia  are  distributed  in  the  soil.So  the  pull  to  the  man  .Their  size  is  about  3-5um.  They formed  so  many  cells  along  with  mycelia  .They  increased  in  number  and  formed  egg.It  caused  infection  and  the  disease  started.

Stages:

First  stage  the  arthroconidia  are  inhaled  to  the  man  by  breath  and  by  nasal cavity.

They entered the body.

After  24  hours  they  become  larger  and  larger.They  nourish  on  the  blood  cells  and  increase  in  number.

In the 48th hour the nuclear division started. The spore formation takes place. After 72 72houres the immature spherules are formed.  The  endospores  formed  on  the  spherules .

They  make  combinations with  each  other. The spherules and the endospores make combinations.

After  the  96hours  the  endospores  covered  in  the  spherules  .They  stayed  here  for  five  days.

After  the  fifth  day  the  spores  are found  in  the  spherule  .The  spherules  release  the  endospores  and  burst.

After  this  tubular  structures  are  formed  and  the  shape  is  changed  into  mycelium  .The  mycelium  are  formed  and  found  in  the  body  disease  cause  infection.

Treatment of Para coccidioidomycosis 

The  jack  had  found  that  the  some  antifungal  medications .These  drugs  infected  the  fungi  and  the  symptoms  included  .The  drugs  are  called  itraconazole  .

It  is  very  infected  .It  is  caused  as  95%  effective .But  the  Jake  use  it  for  6  month  and  effected  .

There are following treatments of the disease of Paracoccidioidomycosis.

  •         Lipo Amides were the first treatment.
  •         Itraconazole is first-line treatment.
  •         Antifungal treatment includes.

o   Voriconazole.

o   Parconazole.

  •          Ketoconazole has toxicity and side effects.
  •         In serious cases the patients are treated with amphotericin B.
  •         Peptide vaccine.

 

 

Home remedies of Para coccidioidomycosis

  • The  care  of  this  disease  is  not  difficult  but  handling  is  most  difficult  .
  • Always use a mask.
  • Don not breathe in dirty air.
  • Use clean and pure water.
  • Always  use  healthy  food

Possible Medications of Paracoccidioidomycosis

For  the  prevention  of  this  disease  we  can  use  the  following  antifungal  medicines:

It is also found in other forms such as injection and syrups etc.

  1. Triazoles
  2. Itraconazole
  3. Voriconazole
  4. Terconazole
  5. Imidazole
  6. Ketoconazole
  7. Sulfonamides
  8. Trimethoprim
  9. Amphotericin  B

 

 

 

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