Eye Injury or Eye Trauma can happen when an object or substance gets in touch with the eye surface or may damage by strike force to the eye. Ocular injury is a serious disease which may cause devastating effects on vision, blurry vision and may lead to complete loss of sight.
Eye injury may cause by minor thing such as eye gets soap or dust particle which may lead to devastating result on eyes. Any damage to the eye by any trauma may not only affect the eye but also affect the nearby area and epithelial tissues of the eye. Everyone should be consulted by the doctor even in minor cases; if any foreign particle remains prolonged in the eye it causes infection. The eye can be injured at home, at the workplace, in other exercises and during sports.
Structure of eye
Sight is a great blessing of God. Without eyes, you can never recognize and understand around you. Vision is a complex process with significant values. The eye contains different parts but here we discuss only main part of the eye. Because our main concern is to discuss eye injuries and eye trauma.
The cornea is the outermost part of the eye surface. It acts as a shield. Iris is the color portion of an eye it controls the mechanism of the pupil; It is a dark tiny spot present in iris. It shows different behavior in response to light and dark Lens; it is a convex structure, It determines the shape of an object with the help of light penetrating through the pupil. It makes an image on the retina; it is a innermost part of the eye and contain light-sensitive photoreceptor which convert light into an electrical signal.
These signals pass through the optic nerve to the brain. Aqueous fluid; It is a gel-like structure present between cornea and retina. It provides strength and support to the eye.
Causes of Eye Injury
It could be a small foreign body and large foreign body. These foreign bodies are maybe sand or dirt particle, wood, plastic and a small piece of metals. Some foreign particle that is lies at the surface of the eye like gravel, contact lenses and loss of eyelashes can be rinsed out. But some sharp particle-like metal rod may become embedded in the eye and causes problems.
If these particles struck into eyes, they may cause scratch at cornea (the cornea is the most important part of the eye, it act like a shield of the eye).
If a foreign body stays in eye for a long time it causes serious eye infection or blindness.
Sometimes foreign particles embedded in the cornea and penetrating inside the iris. Now, this particle lodged itself within the cornea. Rusty stain disease is caused by it.
The black part of eye cornea sense the germ into the eyes which affect the vision. So foreign bodies must be removed.
It could be happened while working or especially while traveling.
In this case, eyes can wash with water.
It could be a chemical injury
It can happen in laboratories, factories during working.
It can also happen by chemical dealings in homes like soup, washing powder, detergents and acid to clean toilets.
It can also transfer chemicals to eyes during working, my hands rubbing to the eye.
In this case, sunglasses must be used.
This injury could be of two types.
1, Blunt injury 2; Penetrating injuries
- Blunt injury; It is caused by hitting of a tennis ball, cricket ball, Football or others.
- Penetrating injury; it is caused by a knife, nail, or even a pencil or pen.
- It may cause wounds .so don’t give eyewash in this case, because water may enter through wound, and may cause many serious problems. So the best thing is to do is cover the eye with an eye patch or eye shield, and rushed to doctor.
- If the wound is deep it will lead to surgery. (Surgery has to be performed for deep wounds)it avoids infection.
- Punch or gust from hand
- Some kind of flying objects may be struck.
- Ultraviolet radiation also a major cause of eye injury.
- Injuries may cause corneal, retinal, area catastrophic problems.
Symptoms and signs of eye injury
If these signs were appeared to go to the doctor for help.
- Unclear vision
- Nuisance seeing
- Colored spot on the white surface of the eye
- Eye can not show any movement.
- Watering eyes
- Abnormal change in size and shape of pupil in eye
Different Types of injuries
Corneal Abrasion or (Scratched eye)
The cornea is the most important part of the human eye. It acts as a shield of an eye. A corneal abrasion is s defects in the epithelial surface of the cornea. If any grain of sand and dust get lodged and penetrate eye, do not rub the eye. Because rubbing the eye with foreign particle may cause scratch on the surface of the eye and may cause serious problems. Different types of bacteria or fungi can enter through scratches into eyes and causes harm in twenty-four hours. If this foreign body is unhygienic and polluted it causes sightlessness.
If the black patches appear in the eye by rubbing, these darker areas are providing best environment for bacterial growth. To prevent this problem cover the eye with an eye patch or any eye shield such as glasses. A corneal abrasion is very painful and it causes rigorous pain, reddishness in color or become sensitive to light. And consult with a doctor for further treatment.
- Traumatic iritic; This trauma is related to iris, an important part of a human eye simply the color portion of the eye known as iris .iris is a rounded structure in the eye, contain muscles controlling the length and size of the pupil and also control the light diffusion system (how much light reach in the retina).
This trauma can be caused by a push in the eye or a propel to the eye from a direct object for example in sports such as a ball or a hand punch. This trauma may cause same like corneal abrasion by hitting blunt force. And word iritic means inflammation of iris. It also needs rapid treatment.
Hyphema; the outer part of eye cornea and innermost part retina have another structure between them which is called the L*p
Anterior chamber. It contains water fluid also called as aqueous fluid. In Hyphema blood collected in the anterior chamber due to some problem. This dilemma or injury may cause by a force with the striking blunt-body to the eye and its nearby area. Example, the face may get hurt by a baseball or, receiving a kick in sports e.t.c.
Orbital fractures; the skinny facial bones are damage in this type of injury. Those facial bones which make bottom orbit around the eyes may rupture or cracked. And cause serious damage which may affect the sight.
Cut to the eyelids; it is utmost covering of the surface of the eye. This injury usually occurs from razor-sharp objects. These damages have severe effects and are commonly connected with shock from pointed objects made of metal or glass.
Foreign particle in the eye: Small and tiny items like a piece of metal, synthetic items and wood particles are the key substance of foreign body injury, Makes contact with eye and causes injury. if these foreign substances are set in the cornea(outer surface), penetrate itself into the eye. a foreign body in the cornea is iron it may lead to rusty stain in the eye. It needs immediate medical help.
Solar retinopathy: it is caused by damage to the inner part of the retina due to constantly staring at the sun. This may happen by viewing solar eclipses or in drug situation. this drugged person look intently at the sun for comprehensive time.
Chemical Burn; In this type of eye injury, the eye may get accidentally spray of the chemical into the eye. This may be harmful to the eye.
. Some substances like a sting or others are quite harmless for the long period, while some can cause serious injury. The basic makeup products mixed up chemicals which may lead to several problems if eyes touched 0r rubbed by hand. These makeup products contain acid or alkaline. The acid may cause redness but it is washable with water. Alkaline substances may cause pain or redness as like acid.
It causes serious outcome as compared to acid. For example oven cleaner. Eye bleeding; It is a quite common injury usually caused by a minor injury. Numbers of the thin blood vessel are present in eye surface or sclera (area of the white eye). Sometimes a short leakage occurs due to breakage of the blood vessel.
This breakage can be occurred by any pressure or blunt force on the eye. As a result, sclera turns into a bright red color. This injury may not prove harmful. And this injury also reduced the risk of temporary and permanent loss of vision. Collected blood must be removed from the eye.
Eye swelling; the inflamed and puffy eyelid, May causes some kind of allergy or eye may get struck by a heavy object like baseball with high speed. Simply the becomes black colour (mark around the eye). The best treatment in this condition is to use of ice pack. Do not apply any pressure on the eye.
Heat; during working heat injury may occur due to high temperature, hot spark and burning to the eyes of workers. To avoid heat risk worker must wear eye shield and eye spectacles.
First aid facilitation for eye injury
First aid care for chemical injury
- As we know that chemical is present in our homes and we deal with these chemicals on daily bases like soups, detergents, washing powder and shampoo. Keeps eyes close during the shampoo.
- If eye gets expose with these chemicals by chance, first do not be panic, be relax and rinsed out the eye with simple water.
- Wash out your eye with water for several times or ten to fifteen minutes and make sure open your eye at the time of flush.
- And ask for immediate help.
Aid for foreign particle
The eye has the ability to clean itself with tears, tears remove the debris and all unwanted particles .so the cleaning is necessary for those bodies which cannot be removed by eye tear mechanism.
For Care of foreign particle, injury can take several steps.
- Wash out your eye care and keep open your eye during washing.
- Repeat this practice until the foreign particle removed.
- Consult with a doctor and make sure that all the debris is removed or not. The doctor will check this by using drops into eyes .these drops reveal the condition of the eye or if any scratch or cut is present.
- If there are any particles embedded in the eye do not remove it by you, it may cause serious damage. Go to the doctor and get proper treatment.
- Do not rub your eyes badly.
- Use some gear sunglasses during travelling or at workplace.
- Take preventive measure during firework
Blows to the eye
Minor injury can be managed at home. But severe injuries need proper attention. This care includes the following steps.
- Compress your eye with soft handed, give a message to this portion after ten to twenty minutes time interval.
- Do not apply direct ice on this portion. Make a hindrance by a piece of cloth between the eye and ice packets
- Eye should be examined by the professional doctor to determine the potential damage (bone may be displaced).in this condition, you have to to go to the emergency department.
- If you notice some symptoms like constant pain, faint vision, or bleeding from the eye, you should ask for medical help immediately.
Aid for Scratch eye injury; there are some tips for first aid care of the scratchy eye.
- Avoid rubbing.
- Cover the eye with some eye shield or eye patch like goggles and rushed to doctor.
- Avoid contact of water with an eye
- Follow the proper medical care
Cuts or wounds on eye aid; it is a serious injury; it can lead to infection or trauma. To avoid infection proper treatment is necessary. You should follow these steps if you are a sufferer.
- Do not wash the eye in this situation.
- Cover the eye with some eye shield or eye patch like goggles and rushed to doctor for further treatment.
- If there is a particle embedded in the eye does not remove it by you, it may cause serious damage or abrasion. Surgery has to be performed for healing wounds.
Get proper medical care
Retinal detachment; in this injury, a force blow the surrounding soft tissue and eye. It can cause swelling and around the eye. And may leads detachment of the retina. It will show some symptoms including pain, blurry vision, and a flash of light. Any injury like this can lead to lifetime disability or complete blindness. These types of injury are most common in athletes or sportsmen. It requires immediate medical attention.
Other common eye problems; sight is the most important and helpful sense from all five senses. Sight helps to understand everything present around us. That s why it is very important to keep clean our eyes and take good care .in this way eye work properly well in future life. With a lack of proper attention to eyes and with increasing age many vision problems get a start.
Most the people face this problem during early age. Some problems are minor and do not cause serious problems but some are serious problems which may cause major damage, loss of sight. Some common problems are listed below.
Dry eyes; Dry eyes cause uneasiness and impaired visualization in both eyes.
- Reddishness in eyes
- Watery eyes with blurred sight and eye tiredness
- Eye senses somewhat present all the time
- Lack of tears
- Lack of tears may be off due to decrease in tear production
- Increased tear production
- Eye drops helpful for this problem
- Protect eyes with sunglasses on windy, dry season
- Take a short break during studying and working on the computer
- Provide gentle washing to eye with warm water it is not a harmful state but it makes a path of infection.
Eyes may become allergic when pollen, mould or other substances react to the outer part of eye and trigger allergies. A chemical called histamine release by allergic substance, which causes swelling in a blood vessel of an eye. Eyes turn to reddish or itchy.
Symptoms; Eyes feels burning and becomes puffy in the morning. And blood vessel may become widened.
Prevention; to prevent allergies, avoids those substances which are the reason for allergy.
Glaucoma; in this condition that optic nerve of eyes is damaged which are good for sight. Blunt force or high pressure on these nerves is the main reason for this damage .with passage of time it may lead to blindness. Glaucoma may be of heredity and may be off due diabetes and eye injuries.
Symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, pain and redness in eyes.
- Regular exercise
- Reduced pressure on the eye while studying and work on the computer.
Age-related muscular degeneration; It is a common condition in peoples in the age above fifty and older. The back of the eye is hurt and cause’s problems with seeing objects. Age-related muscular problem also depends upon on the person s ability. it also causes hard task for recognize a face, drive, read and write for them. Family history and smoking also make a causing factor in this problem.
Prevention; Age-related muscular degeneration closely related to lifestyle. Improving lifestyle can reduce the chances of this problem. For example
- Avoid smoking
- Do regular exercise
- Maintain a normal level of blood pressure and cholesterol
- Get a healthy meal
If any person has minor eye injury it can be cured at home.
- If the eye gets minor cut or scratch on it, simply apply a sterile bandage. If the sterile bandage is not available use a clean cloth. Avoid piece of fluffy cotton because it could be struck in eye .so always bandage uses be clean and dry.
- In case of swelling ice packs used for the reduction of swelling and inflammation. Do not apply a direct ice pack on the eye, keep the piece of cloth between ice and face. Use ice three to four times a day.
- Head should be kept elevated (high) which reduced the pain.
- Take pain killer such as ibuprofen and aspirin which relieve pain
- Give gentle massage and warm cloth in case of swelling
Precautionary measures; some tips to protect sight are listed below.
- During dye; A flying object, sand or dust particle may target your eye any time to prevent it, wear goggles with side shield during working.
- Use goggles while working with chemical
- Keep a regular check on home items such as knife, scissor, forks, pencil, cloth wire hanger because they can cause serious damage
- Store harmful substances out of reaches such as fertilizer, medicine, acid, detergent and other chemical
- Keep separate cleaning products in the kitchen like bleach and other sprays
- Be attentive during working in the kitchen and at a time of holding hot things
- Keep sharp tools from the kitchen such as knife at a safe place. And keep all these things out of child s reach.
- At play; do not allow the children to play with laser guns, point guns or bullets and arrows. Strictly instruct the children wear protective eyewear in sports and other activities. also use the head shield to avoid serious damage.
- During celebration; in events .marriges.or other special occasions, do not go too close to fireworks .and let for professionals.
- Maintain a small distance from pets (dogs, cats).because their nail may leave a scratch on its owner. And it leads to infection.
- Use a seat belt during travelling or wear goggles to avoid flying object like dust particle or flying fluffy cotton.
- At workplaces, there should be safety equipment present. Inspect all the equipment weekly.