Eye Injury: Eye trauma, causes, symptoms & treatment

Last Updated on March 13, 2023 by Dr. Saqib Mueed

Eye Injury or Eye Trauma can happen when an object or substance gets in touch with the eye surface or may damage by strike force to the eye. Ocular injury is a serious disease which may cause devastating effects on vision, blurry vision and may lead to complete loss of sight.

Eye injury may cause by minor things such as eye gets soap or dust particle which may lead to devastating result on eyes. Any damage to the eye by any trauma may not only affect the eye but also affect the nearby area and epithelial tissues of the eye. Everyone should be consulted by the doctor even in minor cases; if any foreign particle remains prolonged in the eye it causes infection. The eye can be injured at home, at the workplace, in other exercises and during sports.               

Causes of Eye Injury

It could be a small foreign body and large foreign body. These foreign bodies are maybe sand or dirt particle, wood, plastic and a small piece of metals. Some foreign particle that is lies at the surface of the eye like gravel, contact lenses and loss of eyelashes can be rinsed out. But some sharp particle-like metal rod may become embedded in the eye and causes problems.

If these particles struck into eyes, they may cause scratch at cornea (the cornea is the most important part of the eye, it acts like a shield of the eye).

If a foreign body stays in eye for a long time, it causes serious eye infection or blindness.

Chemical injury

It can happen in laboratories, factories during working.

It can also happen by chemical dealings in homes like soup, washing powder, detergents and acid to clean toilets.

It can also transfer chemicals to eyes during working, my hands rubbing to the eye.

In this case, sunglasses must be used.

Mechanical injury

This injury could be of two types.

1. Blunt injury                        

2. Penetrating injuries

Blunt injury: It is caused by hitting of a tennis ball, cricket ball, Football or others.

Penetrating injury: it is caused by a knife, nail, or even a pencil or pen.

Ultraviolet radiation also a major cause of eye injury

Injuries may cause corneal, retinal, area catastrophic problems.

Symptoms and signs of eye injury

 If these signs were appeared to go to the doctor for help.

  • Unclear vision
  • Nuisance seeing
  • Reddishness
  • Colored spot on the white surface of the eye
  • Eye can not show any movement.
  • Watering eyes
  • Pain
  • Irritation
  • Abnormal change in size and shape of pupil in eye

First aid facilitation for eye injury

First aid care for chemical injury                      

As we know that chemical is present in our homes and we deal with these chemicals on daily bases like soups, detergents, washing powder and shampoo. Keeps eyes close during the shampoo.

If eye gets expose with these chemicals by chance, first do not be panic, be relaxed and rinsed out the eye with simple water.

Wash out your eye with water for several times or ten to fifteen minutes and make sure open your eye at the time of flush.

And ask for immediate help

Home remedies

 If any person has minor eye injury it can be cured at home.

If the eye gets minor cut or scratch on it, simply apply a sterile bandage. If the sterile bandage is not available, use a clean cloth. Avoid piece of fluffy cotton because it could be struck in eye .so always bandage uses be clean and dry.

In case of swelling ice packs used for the reduction of swelling and inflammation. Do not apply a direct ice pack on the eye, keep the piece of cloth between ice and face. Use ice three to four times a day.

Head should be kept elevated (high) which reduced the pain.

Take pain killer such as ibuprofen and aspirin which relieve pain

Give gentle massage and warm cloth in case of swelling [1]Ocular injuries – a review | Sukati | African Vision and Eye Health (avehjournal.org)[2]The injured eye | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (royalsocietypublishing.org)[3]Veterans Agency (publishing.service.gov.uk)[4]https://www.cecentral.com/assets/2634/005-Yunker.pdf

Reviewed by:

Dr. Iqra Chaudhary


Medical Officer, Red crescent hospital, Sargodha

Our reviewers’ details, Click Here

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