Blast Injury: direct or indirect exposure of blast particles

Last Updated on March 13, 2023 by Dr. Saqib Mueed

A complex physical injury or trauma from direct or indirect exposure of blast particles is known as blast Injury. In the blast injury respiratory functions, fractures, damages of tissues, and blood loss my occurred.  Chances of injury may increase at severe level when it happens in small place. 

Classification of blast Injury

Blast Injury is dived into four classes.

  • Primary blast Injury
  • Secondary blast Injury
  • Tertiary blast Injury
  • Quaternary blast Injury

Primary blast Injury

It is caused due to blast over pressure waves these injuries occur because person is too close in the explosion.  Most affected organs are by it are ears, gastrointestinal tract. These injuries depend on pressure and time. By increased in duration and pressure these injuries also increased. The tympanic membrane or ear parts may damage by high pressure waves.

Vessels of blood, brain tissues, and ear problems occur mostly externally. An effected person has loss of hearing mechanism, hearing lost, headache and process of sound waves. it depends upon the pressure when pressure rises as much explosion is rises. But primary blast injury has long lasting effect on the on internal bleeding of lungs and blood tract.

Lungs injury is the major cause of death in many peoples. The sound among people who are present on the place of explosion. 

Secondary blast Injury

Injury caused due to distribution and high-pressure waves due to explosion. It can affect any body part and because the visible bleeding propelled objects may embed in the body secondary Injuries cause loss of blood within body cavities.

Tertiary blast Injury

The Injuries due to blast wind, that move the body against solid and injuries due to these are known as tertiary blast injures the tertiary injuries including are bone fracture. Child has more chances of blast injury due to small body size and weight.

Quaternary Injury blast Injury

These Injuries including burning of flash, injury completely or partially, injury of respiratory tract. These injuries quickly result in death. Eye injury depends upon how pressure is high. The past traumatic stress disorder also effects on those people who are completely uninjured.

What is Neurothauma?

It is complex syndrome of brain damage caused by combination of all primary, Secondary, tertiary and quaternary Injury of blast explosion. This Injury involved multiple organs or much system of organs.

Injured organ bleeding such as lungs caused deficiency of oxygen in all vital organs such as brain. Lungs rupturing caused this reduction of oxygen uptake from the air, so oxygen delivered to brain in lowered, tissues destruction caused the synthesis of Hormones into the blood. When these Hormones are delivered to brain these changes the function individual of bleats manifests loss of memory before and after explosion.

Injury of chest that are the damage of many tissues and blood vessels. It relies on a time for treatment.


  • Wheezing
  • Crackling Sound in the chest
  • Cool or calumny Skin
  • Low blood Pressure

Treatment depends upon the severity and location the non-steroidal antinflamnary medicines such as aspirin can be effective in slivering pain and reducing inflammation and Ice packs may also applied.  

List blast injuries in body

  • Auditory issues
  • Eye or face damage
  • Digestive system issues
  • Brain injury
  • Renal injury
  • Lung injury
  • Ear injury
  • Abdominal injury

Management options for blast injuries

It is difficult to make an immediate treatment because it is very difficult to deal with chest and abdominal injury and in primary blast injury hearing problems in secondary bleeding from ear and chest confusion and hard to breathing. Primary blast injury can cause rapid problem such as blast lung. Mostly O blood group people face difficulty because they have rare blood group. 

  • Give first aid as soon as possible
  • Take immediate steps to rush towards hospital 
  • Identify the injured place of body
  • After emergency treatment shift to relevant ward in hospital [1]Microsoft Word – primer.doc ([2]Primary blast lung injury – a review ([3][4]BLAST INJURY | JAMA | JAMA Network[5]0001247198.INDD (

Reviewed by:

Dr. Iqra Chaudhary


Medical Officer, Red crescent hospital, Sargodha

Our reviewers’ details, Click Here



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