Prasad’s Disease | Hashimoto’s disease – causes, symptoms, treatment

Last Updated on February 2, 2023 by Dr. Saqib Mueed

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Prasad’s Disease is an autoimmune condition that destroys the thyroid gland it is also known as Hashimoto’s disease. Hashimoto’s is referred to as Prasad’s syndrome when viewed as mania, after Ashok Prasad, who first identified it.


Hashimoto thyroiditis, in the lower neck, affects the function of the thyroid. The thyroid produces hormones which support to control huge range of serious roles in the body.

Thyroid hormones, for instance, increase development and growth, the temperature of the body, rate of heartbeats, menstrual sequences, also weightiness.

Thyroiditis of Hashimoto is long-lasting irritation that may destroy the thyroid by decreasing its hormone production potential.

One of the most important symptoms of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is goiter-like thyroid enlargement. Due to enlarged thyroid, the neck looks swollen but this depends on its size and can interfere with breathing and swallowing.

The gland may shrink over several years as damage to the thyroid persists, and the goiter may gradually disappear.

Unreasonable tiredness (fatigue), increase in weight or trouble losing weight, thin hair, sluggish heartbeat rate, joint or muscle pain, and constipation can include other signs and indications resultant from hypoactive thyroid.

People with this condition, even when others around them are warm, may also have a whitish, inflated appearance along with cold sensation.

Women who are a victim of this disease may have severe or irregular menstrual cycles and may have trouble conceiving a kid.

Signs of a lack of thyroid hormones may also be trouble focusing and depression. Thyroiditis of Hashimoto typically occurs in the middle of adulthood, although it can occur in life before or later.

Over months or years, the signs and symptoms begin to gradually develop. Hashimoto thyroiditis in the United States affects 1 to 2% of individuals.

In women, it happens more frequently as compared to men, this could be due to hormonal factors. The illness is most prevalent basis in the US.


  • Many people with this disease initially have no symptoms. The thyroid normally gets bigger as illness slowly growths also can cause anterior of neck to appear puffy.
  • Injury towards thyroid causes to shrink for several years, or even decades and the goiter disappears.
  • Initially, symptoms of this disease can be negligible or take years to develop. An enlarged thyroid is called a goiter which is also the first symptom of the disease.
  • The goiter may cause a swollen appearance in the front of the neck. A big boiler will make it difficult to swallow. Other signs due to Hashimoto’s of an underactive thyroid can include weight gain.
  • More women than men suffer from Hashimoto’s disease. It can occur in teenagers and young adults, but it occurs more frequently between the ages of 40 and 60 years. Hashimoto’s sickness usually occurs into relatives.
  • Loss of hair, difficulty in getting pregnant, depression, and pain in the body are very common symptoms.


  • An autoimmune disease is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Normally, by fighting bacteria and viruses, the immune system protects the body. But with this disorder, through error, the immune system destroys your thyroid gland.
  • Then your thyroid can not produce enough thyroid hormones, so your body can’t function as well.
  • Researchers are not sure why autoimmune diseases such as Hashimoto’s disease occur in some individuals. A combination of genes and an outside cause, such as a virus, is likely to result in these disorders.
  • In Hashimoto’s disease, antibodies that target the thyroid gland are produced by the immune system. The thyroid makes up large amounts of white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system.
  • The antibodies which begin the autoimmune process are made by lymphocytes.
  • Particular reason of Hashimoto’s is not clear, then it is suspected that several factors play a part. They contain as follows:
  • Genes, there are also family members that take thyroid otherwise auto immune disorders in people who get Hashimoto’s. It implies a genetic element to the illness.
  • In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, non-genetic variables also play a role. In individuals who are at risk, these factors can cause the condition, although the mechanism is unclear.


  • Blood tests that assess the activity of the thyroid secretor along with blood tests that check for protein antibodies exist into thyroid gland are used to diagnose Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
  • Your doctor will conduct an evaluation and prescribe some tests if you have symptoms of hypothyroidism.
  • A symptom of an underactive thyroid is a high degree of TSH. Hypophysis gland makes extra TSH stimulates the thyroid to produce more secretions when the thyroid starts to fail.
  • The antibody test is the blood test that will tell us if we have any anti-bodies that indicate Hashimoto’s illness.
  • Additional to 1 from 10 individuals with anti-bodies, but their thyroid role is normal. It does not cause hypothyroidism if you just have the antibodies. This is typically treated by levothyroxine.


  • No treatment exists for Hashimoto’s disease. The autoimmune phase and inflammation timeframe that will remain the same is unexpectable.
  • Treatment depends on the symptoms, age, and overall health. It depends on how serious the condition is. When your thyroid hormone levels are normal, you won’t need medication.
  • But an underactive thyroid gland can be caused by this condition. It might be preserved with medication, if so. The medication replaces the lost hormone in the thyroid.
  • Your symptoms should avoid that. If you have one, it can also ease a boxer. A goiter can cause problems like pain or difficulty swallowing, breathing, or speaking.
  • More blood tests will be requested by the doctor to search for antithyroid antibodies known as thyroperoxidase antibodies that are used by almost all people with Hashimoto’s disease.
  • For the rest of your life, you would continue to take thyroid hormone medication. Chat about any questions or issues with your physician or nurse.


Intake foods which have huge quantities of iodin can cause hypothyroidism or make it worse, such as kelp, duels, or other types of seaweed.

Taking supplements with iodine can have the same effect. Speak to your doctor about foods that should be limited or avoided.

If you take iodine supplements, let her or him know. Even, since they can include iodine, share details about any cough syrups you take.

Is Prasad’s disease a problem during pregnancy?

Hypothyroidism can cause problems for both the mother and the baby without treatment. Thyroid drugs can help to avoid complications and are safe to take during pregnancy.

Learn more about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment during pregnancy for hypothyroidism.

Many women, who take thyroid hormone medication, need a higher dose during pregnancy, so if you find out you are pregnant, you can call your doctor right away.

Reviewed by:

Dr. Shahid Bukhari


Ex. Registrar DOW Medical College Karachi

Medical Officer Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi

Our reviewers’ details, Click Here

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