Avulsion : types, causes, symptoms and treatment options

Last Updated on February 2, 2023 by Dr. Saqib Mueed

An avulsion is a condition in which the structure of the body is torn off due to shock or surgery. The avulsion is derived from the Latin word atelier means to scratch off. This term a large amount is usually known as exterior of disturbance in which all the layers of skin are being split, displaying the fundamental structures (for example subcutaneous tissues and muscle and tendon or bone).

An avulsion is a Latin word, which means to tear off. It means when an external body part like a finger, ear pinna, or eyelid is torn off or ruptured due to an injury then it is said to be the avulsion injury. It is treatable or not, depends upon its severity. It is called an avulsion injury. This injury may lead to the torn off of tissues, muscles, tendons, or bones.

A type of injury in which a body part gets separated from the whole body either by trauma or by surgery is called an avulsion injury. It is the injury of the body part that cut off from the whole body and cause damage to the body parts.

Explanation about avulsion

It is like an injury as the body part such as the finger or eyelid gets separated or cut down fully or partially detached from the body. It means that it is the part of the body that gets separated from the other body parts due to the injury, accidents, or some surgery or other trauma.

Here only external body parts are affected or torn away but not the internal structure is affected. It may process is called the avulsion injury.

Types of avulsion

Skin avulsions

Avulsions of the skin are a large number of common avulsion. The harshness of avulsion varieties from the layers of skin hides  (slight) delving (regular) and exclusion a feel or appendage (hard). Superficial or surface wounds are those in which the deepness of the detached skin arrives at the subcutaneous cells layer on the other hand or sub-facial wounds increase heavier than the subcutaneous tissue layer.

Small on the surface wound can make good and rectify by joining, but the most common avulsions needed skin transplant or conversion surgery It is the most common type of injury in which the skin gets ruptured or torn off from the body is called as skin avulsion. It mostly occurs in the process of hard work or during hill climbing or mostly occurs during the cause the skin avulsion.

The skin avulsion may be minor or moderate or severe. Its severity may depend upon the severity of the process of the motorbike or motor vehicle collisions or due to some other road accidents. All these accident, it may be minor when a skin flaps, or the moderate when the intensive or specific section of the skin is damaged in such a way that it may lead to the blood loss. It is mostly related to the skin of the hands.

The injury will be severe if the limb of the body is cut off. This limb may be a finger or even a hand that may lead to severe blood loss. There are two other types of avulsion injuries. These are given below.

Superficial  Avulsion

That injury in which the injury is deeper toward the layer of the subcutaneous tissue is known as Superficial injury. It is a deeper injury that causes severe blood loss.

Sub facial Avulsion

It is the type of injury in which injury occurs deeper than the subcutaneous layer. The Superficial injury is mostly able to treat or it is curable but mostly the skin injuries are not curable. They need grafts or sometimes reconstructive surgery.

It occurs due to the friction of the hands or skin with the rocks that cause the injury called an avulsion injury. It also occurs when the climber slips from the rocks or tries to hold the rocks by hand.

Ear avulsions

The type of avulsion in which the ear part is affected and in this process the ear is injured is called ear avulsion. The ear avulsion is the susceptible process and by this process, the ear gets damaged.

In avulsion injuries, the ear is specifically hard to defend due to its place on the side of the head. Human bites are the majority ordinary source of ear a wound, come behind falls, automobile collection, and also dog bites.

The ear avulsion means not the internal part of the ear is get damaged, but the external part is also getting damaged. This external part of the human ear is very susceptible because it is present at the lateral side of the head and it also protects the head.

It is caused by human bites or dog bites or by motor collisions and also by the road accident. All these are caused by the ear injury. A partially injured ear can be attacked again and again through the microvascular surgery but all this depends upon the surgery of the ear.

The wounded ear can also be reconnected by the small vascular operation but this surgery is not fully successful because it is not possible to attach it with the body easily. The ear of the injured persons can be reconstructing again with the help of soft bone and skin when both of these are grafted.

Eyelid avulsions

Motor vehicle collision and dog bites are responsible for eyelid avulsions which are uncommon avulsions. When the Eyelid avulsions occurred it can be cured by using a CT scan after suturing in the order to find out where the problem has occurred to blood vessel muscles and nerve.

When it occurs some injury to the eyelid, it may lead to the danger of eyelid and the eye. It can be reconstructed by the surgical process or by grafting or sometimes by the repairing process after the CT scan is performed. Sometime botulinum is incorporated keen on the eyelid to paralyzes the muscle, uses for eyelid healing.

Nail avulsion

The process, in which injury occurs to nail in such a way, that when the nail plate is torn off from the nail bed. It is called as the nail avulsion. When a pin is gone, mostly this cannot be retained. It is caused due to accidents or by falling from a high place or due to some infection.

Nail plates are caused by Trauma to the nail in which the nail is torn from the nail bed. The nail cannot be rejoined to become a new nail. The nail bed is highly sensitive thought the process until the new nail is formed.

Nail does not reattach, but it can be reproduced by the body cells of keratin and form a new nail until the nail is formed. It will require the formation of tape that causes the sensitive part to heal up in some time. In an average person, the fingernail requires 3-6 months to repair.

 Bronchial plexus avulsions

A pack of nerve impulses that communicates messages among the spinal column and the arms, shoulders, and hands that are procedures occur in bronchial plexus avulsion. The bronchial plexus is split from its relationship to the spinal cable. One specific reason for bronchial plexus avulsion is that during delivery the rotation of the baby’s shoulder may happen in the birth process, this phenomenon causes stretching and tears in the bronchial plexus. it exists in 1-2 out of every  1000 birth babies.

Tooth avulsions

The tooth is totally or wholly disconnected from its socket during the period of tooth avulsion like that the dental pulp appears. In dental pulp socket, secondary teeth may be returned and energized through a dentist. The primary teeth of a baby cannot be replaced because they tend to be contaminated by diseases causing organisms and to obstruct the extension of secondary teeth.

Operational avulsions

 An avulsion is generally performed operationally to lessen signs of a wound, or to stop persistent situations of revenant. A small cut avulsion  is employed to get rid of unhealthy veins as of the legs in disorders like constant blood vessel deficiency.

Causes of avulsions

Specific groups that are additionally similar to be influenced through a damaging rupture which is the following:

Kids can be effected due to this disorder. During growth process when arms or legs may be pulled this disorder can occurred. 

Athletes are also the persons that can effect due to this type of disorder. It can be occurred during playing process. 

Dancers may also effect due to this disorder and this can occurred in dancing. 

Symptoms of avulsions

There are the following symptoms of an avulsion fracture:

  • Severe  pain
  • Inflammation
  • Staining
  • Difficulty in touching the bone or combined
  • Disturbance when irritating 


Especially damage fracture may be misdiagnosed as muscle strain, therefore acquire or obtain the right diagnosis is more significant.  A physician can analyze a damaged crack by survey the injury and bring off an x-ray.

Misdiagnosis of avulsions may cause

  • Nerve discomfort
  • Incurable  pain
  • Difficulty in walking


Ice pack for avulsion fracture Appling on it than remaining part of the injury have preferable treatment facilities.

Although drag in which distance more than few centimeters away from its general place then surgery can be necessary. In the maximum period, damage crack does not need an operation.

Damage cracks are generally cured through:

  • Relax the high flown region
  • Apply frost pack
  • Do a physical activity in the direction of power strength make better movements and show the bone restore to health

These strides provide assistance the high flown bone leads in the direction of its standard location naturally.

In the distinct components of the body, damage cracks are required for special cures or treatments. These are given below:

First Aid

First aid having the following :

Rest: keep away from setting load on the damaged bone.

Ice:   If you do not have an ice pack then you can also use a pack of iced or chilled vegetables.

Compression: You can apply strength covering or burden splint to assist place stress on the bone and make less.[1]SEPT2020_TOOTH.pdf (bahrainmedicalbulletin.com) [2]MANAGEMENT OF AVULSIONS – ScienceDirect[3]Avulsion of permanent teeth: theory to practice – Trope – 2011 – Dental Traumatology – Wiley Online Library

Reviewed by:

Dr. Saeed uz Zaman


Medical specialist in Sargodha civil Hospital 

Our reviewers’ details, Click Here

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