Q Fever | Coxiella burnetii the causative agent

Q Fever caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Q fever is a mild disease. And its symptoms look flu-like, most of those have no symptoms at all. The infection can resurface Years late

In a small percentage of people. This is a more fatal form of Q-fever that can damage your lungs, brain, liver, and Heart. By animals, It is transmitted to humans. Most commonly cattle, goats, and sheep. You may become infected when you inhale dust particles contaminated by infected animals.

Mild cases of Q fever can easily clear up the antibiotic treatment. You may need to take antibiotics for about 18 months at least If Q-fever recurs.

Causes of Q Fever

This disease is caused by a bacterium that is known as coxiella burnetii, It is usually found in cattle, goats, and sheep, This bacteria can infect the pets including rabbits, dogs, and cats, that animals transmit the bacteria through their milk birthing products, feces and urine like that amniotic fluid and placenta, the bacteria that become part of the dust that floats in air when these substances are dry. This disease  transmitted in human though their lungs,

Risk factor

There are following factors that can increase the risk of being infected with Q fever

Occupation.

An at-risk occupation that includes livestock farming and animals research, meat processing, and veterinary of medicine

Location

If you live near the farm, it is at higher risk of Q fever that put on you because bacteria can travel through dust particles in air

Time of year

It can occur at any time of year. But in the U.S.A the number of infections in April and May.

Risk factor for chronic Q fever

It is the fatal form of Q fever that increased in those people who have

  1. Impaired kidney function.
  2. Weakened immune system
  3. Blood vessel abnormalities.
  4. Heart valve disease

Symptoms of Q Fever

Most people, those infected with this disease never show symptoms .there are following signs and symptoms may include

  •   Sensitivity to light
  •   Diarrhea
  •   Vomiting
  •   Nausea
  •   Cough
  •   Chills
  •   Fatigue
  •   Severe headache
  •   High fever .105,(41c)
  •   Clay colored stools
  •   Jaundice
  •   Muscle pain shortness of breath
  • Rash  is also a symptom

How to Diagnose Q Fever

On the basis of symptoms of Q fever, it is difficult for a doctor to diagnose this disease on the basis of a serious complication of Q fever or flu like symptoms. The doctor may suspect you have Q fever.

Due to reason the doctor may also suspect that you Q fever if you work or lie in an environment that puts you at high risk for expiring, your doctor might ask you questions are you working in barnyard or form animals with the help of a blood antibody test the doctor diagnosed there Q fever.

According to the centers for Disease control in the first seven to 10 days of sickness, and antibody test frequently appear negative .it is easy for a doctor to begin the treatment of Q fever on the basis of his suspicion the doctor may order a chest x-ray and other tests to look at you lungs it you doctor suspect you have a chronic infection these tests are called a cardiogram? with the help of a test your doctor look at your heart valves

Complication 

Q fever can persist or come back sometime there are following serious complication if the infection affects some organ of your body

 Brain

 Lungs

 Hearts

 Liver

 Chest

There are following condition on which you are at high risk of developing chronic Q fever such as

  If you are pregnant

   If you are immune system have a weakened

 It you have blood vessel abnormalities

   If you have an existing heart valve disease

According to the central disease control in infected patients, chronic Q fever occurs in less than 5 percent the process of complication of q fever is a heart condition called bacterial endocarditis.

The inside lining of the heart chamber and heart valves inflammation which is called the endocardium if it is not treated it may be fatal or deadly that can cause damage to your heart valves.

In These condition there are no more chances the completion of q fever occur such as

 The inflammation of the membrane around your or spinal cord such as meningitis

 The inflammation of the liver such as hepatitis

  Pregnancy problems such as premature birth low birth weight miscarriage and stillbirth

 Pneumonia other lung issues

Types

There are two major types of q fever

  1. Acute Q fever         
  2. chronic fever

Acute Q fever

It is the most common and less serious. It is caused due to fever, muscle pain, and also increases body temperature. Such diseases are mild pneumonia hepatitis within a few weeks without treatment; most patients with acute  Q fever make a full recovery. within a few days, antibiotics can help relieve the symptom

Chronic Q fever

It is more serious and for less common the inflammation of the inner lining of the heart is called endocarditis  other complication of Q fever are as follows

 Inflammation of the central nervous system

Infection of bones

Inflammation of lungs

 Inflammation of the liver

The people those infected with Q fever they have to take antibiotics for several years to prevent this disease

Treatment options

For two types of treatment will be different

  1. Acute Q fever

 Mild cases resolve within a couple of weeks without any treatment the doxycycline is the standard treatment with one week of symptoms appearing the antibiotics are most effective so it is important to start possible After 6 month the patient asked for further serologic testing the antibiotic will be necessary, it specific antibodies are present

  1. Chronic Q fever

 When part of blood vessels or damages the  blood vessel that can cause a weakness in the wall the swelling can be very large or small and extend the blood vessels

some other complication areas including

 sudden death, in this cause the patient will need several years for the infection returns

Prevention

In Australia. A vaccine has been successful for those people who work in high-risk environments. but it is no available in the united states You should be taken the following  preventing steps if you are at high risk for Q fever and you are not vaccinated

 Restrict the airflow from animal holding facilities to other

Animal those infected by quarantine.

 Properly wash your hand

 Properly disinfect and decontaminated exposed areas.

 Properly expose of all birth material

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