Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | Disorder of extra use of alcohol

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a congenital syndrome associated with extra use of alcohol by the mother during pregnancy and the result of the destruction of mental development and also affect the physical growth especially the face and skull.


It’s such a condition in children that is caused by exposure to alcohol during mother pregnancy and affects brain damage and growth problems. It is also known as  FASDs . It’s an umbrella term for a wide range of disorders. The use of alcohol by mother can cause a lot of mental physical neural impairments and behavioral spectrum which is collectively called fetal alcohol syndrome.

Alcohol consumptions during pregnancy with both embryonic and fetal development. Such use of alcohol can cause a wide range of problems including growth retardation, physical birth defect, and facial dysmorphic but the most effects on developing brain and accompanying behavior and cognition.

Alcohol use during pregnancy is the leading known cause of developmental disability and birth defects in the United States. when pregnant women drink the developing organs in the fetus are not fully formed and developed. and they cannot complete this process.

Alcohol keeps the baby from getting oxygen and nutrients needed for brain development. In this way, the baby is born abnormally. They do not have any normal organs and have many cognition problems.  drinking can cause facial abnormalities as well as heart organ bones and the central nervous system to develop incorrectly.

Alcohol can harm an embryo or fetus of any time even before a woman knows she is pregnant. of all substances of abuse including alcohol cocaine heroin and marijuana. Alcohol produces the most serious neural effects in the fetus.

Such babies are not able to learn anything correctly because they do not have to develop cognitive ability.

Symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome

There are many symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome.

Physical defects:

Small head size.

Low body weight.

Poor memory.

Difficulty with attention.

Hyperactive behavior.

Shorter than average height.

Abnormal facial features (such as a small ridge between the nose and upper lip called philtrum).

Deformities Of joints limbs and fingers.

Vision difficulty or hearing problems.

Slow physical growth before and after birth.

Heart defects and problems with kidney and bones.

Small eyes an exceptionally thin upper lip short upturned nose smooth skin.

Brain and central nervous system defects also appeared.

Brain and central nervous system defects problems

There are many brain and central nervous system problems:

Poor coordination and balance.

Poor memory.

Intellectual disability learning disordered and delayed development.

Difficulty with reasoning and problem-solving.

Poor judgment skills.

Rapidly changing moods.

Difficulty identifying consequences of choices.

Jitteriness or hyperactivity.

Trouble with attention and processing information.

Destroy the forebrain to lose their cognitive ability.

 Social and behavioral problems

There are many social and behavioral defects of fetal alcohol syndrome:

Problems with functioning copying and interacting with others may include:

Trouble getting along with others.

Difficulty in school.

Poor social skills.

Problems with behavior and impulse control.

Trouble adapting to change or switching from one task to another.

Poor concept of time.

 Causes fetal alcohol syndrome

There are many causes some are below

When women are pregnant and drink alcohol.

The alcohol enters your bloodstream and reaches your developing fetus by crossing the placenta.

Alcohol causes interference with the delivery of oxygen and optional nutrients to your developing baby.  Then in your baby, because a fetus metabolizes alcohol slower than an adult does.

Use of alcohol before birth can cause harm to the development of the tissues and organs and cause permanent brain damage in the newborn baby.

More use of alcohol by the pregnant woman than the greater the risk of the two unborn babies. However, any amount of alcohol puts your risk of neural problems. The baby brain heart and blood vessels begin to develop in the early weeks of pregnancy.

Drugs also is the main cause of fetal alcohol syndrome.

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Problems  behavior not only present at birth that can result of having the  fetal alcohol syndrome 

Aggression improper social conduct and breaking rules and laws.

Mental health disorders such as depression anxiety or eating disorders.

Alcohol or drug misuse.

Problems staying in or completing school.

Problems with independent living and with employment.

Early death by accident homicide or suicide.

inappropriate sexual behaviors.


There are following preventions of fetal alcohol syndrome :

  • continue to avoid alcohol throughout your pregnancy.
  • Do not use alcohol if the woman is pregnant and stopped drinking as soon as to avoid this.
  • Do not overuse of any medication during the pregnancy.
  • Avoid radiations.
  • Taking exercise daily.
  • Making the environment neat and clean.
  • Go away from the teratogens.
  • Eating fresh food.
  • Making your diet balance.

Treatment options

There is no specific cure and treatment of fetal alcohol syndrome:

Physical defects and mental deficiencies typically persist for a long time or a lifetime. However, early intervention services may reduce some of the effects of fetal alcohol syndrome and may prevent some secondary disabilities.

A team that includes a special education teacher speech therapist, physical and occupational therapist, and a psychologist.

Medical cure for health problems such as vision problems or heart abnormalities.

Vocational and life skills training.

Early intervention to help them with walking, talking, and social skills.

Addressing alcohol and other substances use problems if needed.

Special services in the school to help with the learning and behavioral issues.

Counseling to benefit the parent and the family in dealing with a child’s behavioral problems.


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