Dialysis of kidney | renal replacement therapy

In medicine, dialysis is derived from the two Greek words.” Dia” means” complete” and Lysis revenues “releasing or break off”.

Dialysis is the process in which the waste product of the body remove with the help of a dialyzer  This can also be called renal replacement therapy.

Dialysis situation:

The dialysis processes are used if the kidneys of a patient do not function correctly, or it can be due to not a suitable method.

 Or dialysis is used during acute kidney failure. The dialysis is also performed when the kidney does not function accurately due to a large number of waste products, poison material in the blood, etc.  dialysis process is needed when the large wastes of product deposits and kidneys fail to perform its function properly.


The process of dialysis maybe works on different principles. Through the semi selective membrane, the solutes or some other substances can be moved from high to low level of the fluids. From one side of the selective membrane, the blood can be flow.  But From the opposite side, the important types of fluids will be moved near the body of the patients.


The process of dialysis first invented by Jhon Abel. A scientist whose name ware Jhon Abel and Leonard exposed the process of dialysis in 1913.  And this process of dialysis was effectively performed in the faunas. The first successful dialysis was performed in 1943. By the process of dialysis, the patients recover their health easily but not as normally.

Role of kidney:

In the filtration of the blood from the body, the kidney has the main role.  Bean shaped parts are the parts of urinary system. In the abdominal cavity, these parts are present. From the pairing of the renal kidney arteries, they will be obtained the blood in the body.

Types of dialysis

Some of two following types of dialysis that are given below,

1 .Haemodialysis

2 .Peritonial dialysis


In this dialysis, this the type in which the patient kidney failure can be cured to remove from the blood the extra amount of the human waste products. In Haemodialysis, the kidney cure specialists can use a machine and then from the blood, the wastes products can be removed from the body of the patients. The hemodialysis uses a machine called Dialyzer.

In 1960, the hemodialysis process first became the practical treatment for kidney failure. Hemodialysis treatments are the most effective treatments and minimize the side effects. But hemodialysis is a less effective process to treat the kidney failure than that of the peritoneal dialysis

Waste products of Hemodialysis:

In hemodialysis, the waste products are creatinine, excesses waste of ions, poisoning fluid of the blood, and excesses water in such conditions when the kidney does not function normally or the kidney is in state of acute disease failure. When the waste products are removed by hemodialysis, the kidney may perform its function normally but not for more years.

Types of hemodialysis:

There are three major types of the hemodialysis that are given below,

1: Arteriovenous fistula

2: AV graft

3: vascular access catheter

1: Arteriovenous fistula:

This type is important to connect an artery with the vein. And it is the most preferred option in hemodialysis.

2: AV graft:

It is the type looped tube.

3: vascular access catheter:

This is the type in which a tube is inserted in the neck of the patient during hemodialysis.

Side effects of hemodialysis:

The side effects of the hemodialysis are following that are given below,

  • The low-level blood pressure
  • Poisoning of the blood
  • Loss of fluid
  • The high level of minerals
  • Dryness of the mouth
  • nervousness
  • Anemia or Erythropoietin
  • Renal osteodystrophy
  • Sleep disorder
  • Amyloidosis

The low level of blood pressure:

Poisoning of the blood:

Loss of fluid:

People may experience loss of fluid during hemodialysis commonly in the leg of the low side. This is occurred  by muscle responding to the loss fluid when there is hemodialysis. After hemodialysis, many people face these types of muscle cramps which causes negative changes in the patients.

  1. Itchy skin:

It is occur because of the minerals become very high in the body of the patients. This is also occur due to hemodialysis. This effect may be occurred because of buildup of the minerals during the dialysis sessions.

  1. Anemia or erythropoietin:

It is the effect in which the RBCs become low. The oxygen is transferred to the figure or form because the cells of the red blood can convey the oxygen to all the part of the body. When there is no oxygen, the red blood cells cannot do that which may lead to anemia due to lees vitality.

  1. Renal osteodystrophy:

The major basis of hemodialysis is the kidney osteodystrophy. The word renal means or defines the effects related to the kidneys. It is a bone disease. The kidney osteodystrophy in the kidney patients can be effected about ninety percent in the body.  It can be made the bones more sick and thin also and that’s why mainly effects on both children and adults.

  1. Sleep sicknesses:

Sleep sickness is also a new result of hemodialysis that is the reason of  some severe things.  Some people may have specific problems called as sleep disorders. This is often occurred by snoring and break in snoring. This is actually break in breathing during sleep. These sleeps may cause disturbance to day night reversal. Many people when they sleep at night time can be faced with severe  troubles. These troubles can be because of painful, rough and fatigue in the legs of the kidney patient.

  1.  The renal Amyloidosis:

In the people or the patients of the kidney is very general that is very realted to the diseases of the joints. They can be on dialysis for 5 or more than 5 years. Dialysis-related Amyloidosis occur with the proteins in the blood and can be effected on joints and tendons. They can be reason for the pain, dificulty, the fluid in the joints  just like in the situation of asickness in thebones   of the kidney patients .


Haemofiltration is a same process of the filtration but it is not a haemodialysis. Haemofiltration is resemble to the haemofiltration.  With the help of the filter that can be ocured in the process of dialysis, the blood can be entered in the body of the patients. The water will be moved across the selective membrane quickly when the pressure is applied on it.

In this membrane the substances may be dissolved and the large molecular substances with the molecular weight are included. All that type of substances can not be cleared with the help of the process of haemodialysis. during this process, the loss from the blood of salts and water can be replaced with the fluid of substation. Then during the treatment, it can be filled with the circuit .

Duration for hemodialysis treatment:

Peritonial dialysis:

Some features of hemodialysis are following that are given below,

  •  The process of peritoneal dialysis may be best process  than the process of  hemodialysis
  • This can be applied in those persons whose kidneys are in stage of acute failure or it is done in significant kidney disease problems.
  • peritoneal dialysis is used by the body by removing the dangerous material from the kidney of the patient.
  • peritoneal dialysis is not possible in those people which have always done a surgery for any kind of problem.
  • It uses the peritoneal cavity.
  • In peritoneal dialysis, the mixture is used which is known as dialysate .it is passed through peritoneum and remove waste product from blood.

Waste products of the process of  peritonial dialysis:

The waste product of peritonial dialysis is given below,

The waste products are urea and excess waste like creatnine .

Type of peritonial kidney cured:

Some of the following two main  types of the peritonieal dialysis that are given below,


The two type differ from each other in following ways that are given below,

  1. By reason of way of exchanging material .
  2. one type of them use a machine and other do not use a machine.

CAPD use machine while APD not  use a machine.

Solutions used in peritoneal dialysis:

Solutions used typically are sodium chloride, hydrogen carbonate, an osmotic agent such as gulcose etc. .

Side effect of peritoneal dialysis:

There can be some main  side effects of the peritoneal kidney cure disease that are given below,

Loss of hunger

Uncomfortness in night



Inflammatory problem

Muscle fatigue

Some other Side affects of peritonial dialysis:

  • gaining of the wieght of the patient
  • abnormility of organs
  • swelling of the peritoneium

Main side effect by  peritonial dialysis:

There can be some  main side AffectS of the peritonIeal dialysis is Bacterial infection.

Some common uses of dialysis:

There are some common uses of dialysis that are given below.

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Support kidney health
  • Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits
  • Kidney transplant

Advantages of peritoneal dialysis:

There are some benefits for the peritoneal dialysis that are given below,

  • The continuous therapy can act as a normal kidney
  • It may be allow for less nutritional limits
  • Greater flexibility in treatment

Duration of peritoneal dialysis:

The peritoneal treatment lasts for four to five hours. During the treatment, the patient can sleep, watch TV etc.

Dialyzable substances:

 There are some dialyzable substances in dialysis. Dialyzable substances are those substances that are removable with dialysis. They have the following properties of the dialyzable substances that are given below,

  • Molecular mass is very low
  • Water with high solubility
  • The capacity of binding with low protein
  • Long in duration to eliminate(half life)
  • Supply in less size

Dialysis indications:

Dialysis cab be divided into two indications. These are;

1: acute indications

2: chronic indications

1: Acute indications:

In the patients, the indications may not be specified. The kidney may be cured in some time of period. In the kidney the rate of filtration cannot be very low. Vomtings to the patients can be lead to the indications of acute failure. vomiting vomiting might be most more pronounced in the morning when you are in stage 5 you can expect further worsening in energy level and some sleep disturbances some patients will require.we require more sleep at night

2: Chronic indications:

When the patients have the characteristics kidney fault then these types of indications can be specified. And the rate of filtration is low in the glomular part of the kidney. Chronic kidney disease is basically a slowly worsening kidney function.There are some of the symptoms that certainly  occur in most of the individuals throughout that stage who continue to work full-time and live a pretty much normal life you look at them and you would never guess that they have chronic kidney disease.

Symptoms of chronic diseases:

When a large or enomerous amount of protein is leaking, the symptoms are the only exception in these patients.  Because these can be developed the swellings in the legs or may be in other parts of the body of the patient of renal failure. When the patients may have the chronic disease, the patient may not be aware with this. And when the patient will do the tests of blood and urine, it may not be recognized by these diseases. Therefore many of time it can be identical findings.

When dialysis can be needed?

When there is  measure of blood chemical side by side, the doctors do test  Doctors take a test in the body of the patient. The level of creatinine and the blood of urean nitrogen are  Some of the two foremost level of the chemical blood which can be restrained. Both the levels become raised to peak the doctor ask for dialysis.

These two level are the indicator of the decreasing ability of the kidney to clean the blood. As the creatinine is filtered from the blood through the kidneys when the kidneys perform their functions normally. Therefore in the case of adults dialysis needed or recommended when the rate   of glomerular filtration reached its level 10ml/min.

Side Effects of dialysis:

 Some other effects that may cause some severe complications.The nonstop technique of the dialysis process may be the reason of high complications in the body of the patients. But the process of the dialysis may be supportive. Some of the high complications of the dialysis process can be the level of blood pressure is high, infection in the bodi, loss of fluid(muscle cramp), fever, the poisoning of the blood,or it can be another disease. Through these effects the patients may lead a patient with severe diseases that very harmful and patient may die.


 Through dialysis, the patient may not recover properly. There is also another method instead of dialysis that is kidney transplant. Dialysis is not proper method  for treatment of kidney disease but it is a simple and the measure of the chemical blood level might be  temporary in the patient when there is minor kidney problem and can be temporary in those patients that are  expecting for the transplant of the kidney.

And the measure of the chemical blood level is permanent in those patients which are not specified for the kidney transplant. method for treatment. The process of  Dialysis is help full only for normal kidney disease person. Dialysis is done in start after one day per weak but after this it need 2to 3 day per weak but it is not accurate  method after long term it lead to a    person kidney transplant .kidney transplant is done to save a person live but it is not hundred percent guaranteed. The patient with dialysis  or kidney transplant may die after several years.

Kidney function after dialysis:

 When kidneys fail, they are run through dialysis. When the process of the dialysis stop, the kidneys can do their work normally in some weeks.  Sometimes there may be a continuous failure of the kidney that may be developed by which the transplant of the kidney may be necessary or the process of dialysis is needed. The kidneys usually start to work again normally but not properly or perfectly. The kidney is transplanted with another healthy donor.

Kidney failure factors:

In the failure of the kidney, they maybe contain some factors. The kidneys clean the blood of the body and reduce the extra minerals, fluids, and wastes from the body of the human as when the kidney of the human is healthy. Hormones make the bones of our body much strong and to the blood healthy that’s why the kidneys of the human contain some types of hormones.

Sometimes the dangerous wastes might produce in the human body as the kidney become fail. Because of this reason, the level of the blood pressure can be rise and the level of extra fluid may be increased. Due to this reason, a sufficient amount of the red blood cells cannot be made. The blood in the body can be filtered when the kidney of the human body is healthy.


Dialysate is a solution of the dialysis process. The dialyzer can be filled with the fluid  and it may remove from the blood, the wastes products, extra minerals and the solutes from the body. Dialyzer is also filled with the solution which may contain some chemicals that resemble with the sponge.

Is kidney failure permanent?

The kidney failure can be permanent when it is failed. But the kidney failure may not be typically lasting.

When the acute failure of kidney is occurred, it can be cured with a suitable treatment. In some of the circumstances, when the kidney might cured, the dialysis process may be needed for the very less duration.

What does dialysis do?

Because of dialysis, the body of the kidney patient may maintain in balance and it can be remain in balance to remove from the blood, the extra fluid from the body, the human waste products and the extra minerals when the kidneys become fail. The process of dialysis maintain the level of chemicals of the blood in the body. For example, sodium, potassium, and some of the bicarbonates. It may be also help in to control the level of the blood pressure.

Beneficial Dialysis:

Peritoneal dialysis is considered as the best dialysis as compared to the hemodialysis. As the peritoneal dialysis is an easy process and less pain full to treat the failure of a kidney and a continuous therapy is provided. But both of these processes of the dialysis may harm the patient health and causes severe complications.

Can dialysis kill?

If kidneys fail, dialysis is a process that help to treat the kidney failure. Dialysis is a process that help a kidney patient to live for more time. The is a danger of the high level of human wastes products, the high level of the water, and the not equal level of the chemicals in the body of human when the kidney become fail and do not perform its function normally.

 So if kidney failure is not treated, there will be a very high level of the water, waste products, and chemical imbalance in the blood of a person. And that’s why any one of these problems may lead to the death of the patients. Dialysis is generally started when the 10% function of kidneys fail to perform from its normal function.

Side effects when the dialysis is skipped:

When the dialysis is skipped, it may cause severe effects. Sometimes during the dialysis process, the toxins level may increases very high during the treatment or when the dialysis is missed, then the toxins and the fluid present in the blood may reach at that point where they may make the patients very unwell ad could potentially be fatal.

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