Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic infection caused by cryptosporidia protozoan found in the intestinal path and caused severe damage.
Cryptosporidiosis called “crypto”. It is a diarrheal disease that occurs due to parasites, cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium is a genus parasite and the apicomplexa is a phylum.And distal small intestine and the respiratory path is affected by this disease.
It affected the individual with a normal functioning immune system. It is a life-threatening infection caused by drinking polluted and dirty water. It also caused by not keeping batter cleanliness.
During the last 2 decades, crypto has become recognized as the most common reason for waterborne disease within humans in the United States. The crypto parasite may be present in every water region of the US and throughout the world.
How is cryptosporidiosis spread?
cryptosporidium lives in the intestine of affected humans or animals. During the digestion of feces, millions of crypto germs released on the soil, food, water. Humans or animals may be infected by the accidental swallowing of this parasite. Crypto is not spread by contact with blood.
Animals can be affected when they eat or put any content in the mouth which is infected with crypto.
By drinking water which is affected by this parasite. The affected water is present in ponds, springs, rivers, hot tubes, swimming pools, lakes, streams, fountains.
By touching the mouth of an animal with contaminated hands and body. Hands can be contaminated for different reasons, such as touching toys, bathroom fixtures, changing tables, diaper pails that have contaminated feces of infected animal persons.
By eating food that is affected with crypto.
By exposure to humans stools through sexual contact.
Humans can be affected by this crypto during the handling of infected cows or calves.
Herbivorous animals can be affected during the grazing in fields which are affected by this parasite.
- Parents of infected children
- Child care worker
- Former and people who take care of infected cattle and animals
- People who drink water in swimming pool which have contaminated sources
- International travelers
- People remove human stools through sexual contact
- Children in caretaker centers
Signs and symptoms of Cryptosporidiosis
Cryptosporidiosis causes acute infection in the alimentary canal, the symptoms of cryptosporidiosis shows after two weeks after infected. It may be fatal in animal with a high compromised their immune system.
Cryptosporidiosis may be affected by other organs like the hepatobiliary system, pancreas, upper gastrointestinal tract, and urinary bladder.
There are two types of cryptosporidiosis :
Some important signs and symptoms of Intestinal cryptosporidiosis are given below.
- Severe diarrhea (contain blood or mucus )
- Weight loss
- Water loss
- Pain in stomach
- In some cases, diarrhea may be profuse and cholera-like hypovolemia.
- Nausea and vomiting
- Lack of appetite
Less common or rare sign and symptoms contain:
- Ascites (contain pancreatic problems )
- Jaundice contain hepatobiliary involvement
Upper respiratory system contains the following symptoms in cryptosporidiosis.
- Inflammation of nasal cavity, sinuses larynx, or trachea
- Hoarseness (dysphonia)
- Nasal leak
lower respiratory system contains the following symptoms in cryptosporidiosis :
- Hypoxemia (low level of oxygen in the blood)
- Dyspnea (shortness of breath )
Some people having cryptosporidium parasites have no symptoms .
Diagnosis of Cryptosporidiosis
The simple path to determine cryptosporidium disease. This method is an acid staining test. They show cryptosporidium below the microscope. To observe the cell for investigation, the doctor may say stool samples or other major cases.
Parasite infection is caused by cryptosporidium, which needs more advancements for the enlargement of far-reaching problems. For example, checking gallbladder and liver consequences might regulate whether the contamination has advanced.
Doctor advice stands to stool culture, after all stool culture tests cannot identify the manifestation of cryptosporidium, this might help direct bacterial infective agents.
Treatment of Cryptosporidiosis
The people who have a healthy immune system can be recovered without any treatment. Diarrhea can be recover by drinking excess of water fluid to prevent dehydration. People who have a weak immune system take more time and treatment for recovery.
Young children and pregnant women recover their illness of diarrhea by drinking enough pure water and fresh juice. Dehydration in babies can cause life-threatening diarrhea. Therefore parents should talk to their family doctor about fluid replacement therapy options for infants.
Anti-diarrhea medicine may slow down diarrhea but check-up from a doctor is necessary before such medicine is taken. Nitazoxanide is an FDA-approved medicine to recover diarrhea which is caused by Cryptosporidium in people with a healthy immune system which is available by prescription.
An HIV-positive individual who has cryptosporidiosis should take advice from their health care provider. The patient which have also AIDS, antiretroviral therapy that improve the immune system will decrease symptoms of cryptosporidiosis .
However, if symptoms disappear cryptosporidiosis is not recoverable .the symptom may return if the immune status worsens.