Chikungunya is a disease that was first described in Tauganiya in 1952. Now it is present in 5 continents. It has become most common in the last 10 years and it has affected more than 1 million people. There is big research on the virus of this disease and about this disease.
People got infected by this disease after being bitten by the mosquito that contains that virus. Replication continues there Virus replicate themselves there.
Sickness comes in the infected man in 1 or 2 weeks. Symptoms may appear suddenly and symptoms of it is fever digestive problem characteristic rash joint pain and stiffness remains in the body of the infected people for months even for a year.
Chikungunya is transmitted by 2 species of mosquitoes usually these species are
- Aedes Aegypti
- Aedes Albopictus
These species are present now everywhere in the world .America. Africa. Asia. Europe. In the last few years, Chikungunya has been reported largely in the United States of America. The reason is that Aedes Albopticus is spreading itself worldwide.
That’s why Chikunguniya is spreading worldwide day by day. This species of Aedes Albopictus is also known as the Asian tiger mosquito.
It is easy for Aedes Albopticus to establish itself wherever it wants. This is one of the main reasons why Chikunguniya is spreading too fastly. when it got established it increased the number of its mosquitoes there.
There is no treatment for Chikungunya until now. There are no drugs or vaccines exist. But there are many laboratories that are working for the treatment of Chikungunya Control of this disease is limited.
Chikungunya is a mosquito disease and it caused by the Chikungunya virus Why this disease has this name Because in mono county language which means bends up . In reference to the classical bending process of this disease which involvement of back and lower limb. which put forces on the patient to bend forward and stoop down this.
This is the reason it is known as Chikungunya. The virus of Chikungunya is an RNA virus . This virus belongs to the Tobacco Virus family. it is transmitted by the bites of these mosquitoes which are affected . Basically, it is a virus of African origin but has been spread in Asian countries as well. It spread in different countries because of travelers The exact pathogenesis of this disease is still unknown. infected mosquito affect human.
Then the virus is injected into the skin then into the blood. This virus replicates itself in the fibroblasts tissue of the bones.This replication occurs only in the target tissue. These target tissues are Muscles. Skin and joints and maybe liver.
After viral replication in the targeted tissue, the viremia increased. Because of this increased viremia fever is caused. Inflammatory infiltrates and capillary hemoglobin are taught to cause skin rash . Inflammatory cells are required to infected tissue.
After that they goes to the skin may cause macromolecular rash then it goes to the muscle it causes mayongiya when it goes to the joints It causes pain. And the joints including fingers , elbow, knee, ankle and to user in response to the viral replication. Now kill definition of Chikungunya …
Cases of Chikungunya
There could be 3 cases of Chikungunya .
- Possible case (Clinical criteria)
- Probable case (Clinical + epidemiological criteria )
- Confirmed case (Lab criteria of irrespective chemical presentation )
If there are clinical criteria then it will be known as a possible case. Now the question is what is clinical criteria. Clinical criteria is fever mortal at 1°F or altheliogio arthritis but not explained by another explanation.
The second one is probable case-patient made clinical and epidemiological criteria. Now, what is epidemiological criteria? Epidemiological criteria is the reciting of having visit to the epidemic areas having reproductive transmission within 15 days.
Now the 3rd 1 is confirmed case. Lab criteria of irrespective chemical presentation. Lab criteria are the isolation of the virus by a cell construction .
Clinical features of Chikungunya
There are 3 features.
- Joint Manifestation
Now about the fever. There is a period of fever more than 101° F followed by febrile phase. It may be associated with the chest and river .
Now second 1 is joint manifestation. joints symptoms usually start with arthralgia and involvement is join joints like fingers, elbow. wrists knee and ankle. However larger joints can also be involved in this like shoulder joints and knee joints could also be involved in it. But in a few cases, it may be migrated to the legs .
It could be worst in the morning but can be relieved by exercise and movement. As it has been explained earlier the classical bending of Chikungunya is joint involvement of back and lower limbs which forces the patient to stoop down and bend forward .
Which is more prominent in the upper portion and on the face but it can also occur in the lower portion.
Symptoms of Chikungunya
Headache. Backache. Fotofobia. Vomiting and diarrhea. Headache in the Adult. While diarrhea and vomiting are more common in children. Now due to the Similarities of Chikungunya some other differential diagnoses may be considered with the importance like Dengue Malaria etc.